Edible mushroom drying method

Edible fungus has high water content, fresh bacteria, and strong ripening, perishable, mass production or large-scale cultivation, the quality of dry processing will directly affect the economic benefits of producers. The dried method of edible fungi includes natural drying and artificial drying. In the drying process, the speed of drying plays a decisive role in the quality of dried products. The faster the drying speed, the better the product quality. Natural drying uses sunlight as a heat source for drying. It is suitable for bamboo oysters, white fungus, enoki mushroom, hericium erinaceus and shiitake mushrooms. It is one of the oldest dry processing methods for edible fungi in China. During the processing, the bacterial cells are laid flat on the bamboo drying curtain that is inclined to the south and do not overlap each other. In winter, the angle of the drying curtain needs to be increased to increase the irradiation of sunlight. When the fresh bacterium spreads in the sun, it should be lightly flipped to prevent breakage. Generally it takes 2 to 3 days to dry. This method is suitable for the production and processing of small scale breeding sites. Some mushroom farmers in order to save costs, after drying to the semi-dry, and then artificial baking, which need to be based on the weather conditions, light intensity, edible fungi, moisture content and other appropriate control, otherwise it will make the mushroom twist, deformation, discoloration. Artificial drying oven, oven, drying room, or with charcoal hot air, electric heat and infrared heat, such as baking, so that the bacteria dehydration and drying. This method has a fast drying speed and good quality and is suitable for large-scale processing of products. At present, the artificial drying equipment can be divided into heat acting modes: (1) hot air convection drying, (2) heat radiation drying, and (3) electromagnetic induction drying. China now has a lot of use of a linear temperature-type drying room, tempering temperature drying room and hot air dehydration dryer, steam dehydration dryer, infrared dehydration dryer and other equipment. The dehydration and drying process of edible mushrooms is various. Take shiitake mushrooms as an example, in order to make the mushroom type round, the thick side of the mushroom cover, the thick yellow color of the mushroom pleats, the rich flavor and the export standard with the moisture content reaching 12%, the following must be grasped. Links: I. Strictly grasping the picking and cutting in eight mature, unopened umbrella picking, when the spores of mushrooms have not been distributed, dried after the strong flavor, good quality. Water spray is forbidden during harvesting. The fresh mushrooms collected are placed in bamboo baskets. They cannot be shipped in bags or nylon bags to prevent extrusion, breakage or deterioration. Second, promptly apportioning the harvested mushrooms should be promptly spread on the bamboo curtains in the ventilated and dry areas to speed up evaporation of the water on the surface of the mushrooms. Must not put fresh mushrooms on wet ground to prevent browning and affect the color of dried mushrooms. After the stalling of fresh mushrooms, according to market requirements, the general method is not to cut the handle, half of the mushroom handle cut, mushroom handle full cut in three ways to deal with separately, while eliminating wood debris and other debris and shredded mushrooms. Third, the finishing machine baking requirements on the day of harvest, the same day baking. Fresh mushrooms are sorted and sorted according to their size, thickness, and flower shape. Mushroom shank is evenly discharged upwards on the upper drying curtain, and poor quality is discharged into the lower layer. In order to prevent the mushroom cell metabolism from being aggravated during the baking process, causing the mushroom cover to stretch and open the umbrella, the color becomes white, and the quality is reduced. Before the machine enters the machine, the empty machine can be warmed to 38° C. to 40° C., and the mushroom is put on the shelf. Fourth, to grasp the heat, low-temperature drying mushroom water content of up to 90%, must not be high-temperature blasting. The operation requirements of the boot operation are standardized: At the same time when the ignition temperature rises, the exhaust fan is started so that the heat source is evenly input into the drying room. When the temperature rises to 35°C to 38°C, the dried curtain of fresh mushrooms will be layered into the drying room to promote the contraction of the mushroom body, increase the curling degree and the thickness of the mushroom meat, and improve the quality of the dried mushroom. Dryer temperature control: 1 to 4 hours at 38 to 40°C, 4 to 8 hours at 40 to 45°C, 8 to 12 hours at 45 to 50°C, and 12 to 16 hours at 50 to 53°C, 17 The temperature is maintained at 55°C for 18 hours and 60°C for drying. 5. Pay attention to the ventilation and ventilation. With the evaporation of the internal moisture of the mushroom body, the poor ventilation in the drying room will cause its color gray and brown, and the quality will decline. Operation requirements: 1 to 8 hours to open the dehumidification window, 8 to 12 hours of ventilation to maintain about 50%, 10 to 15 hours of ventilation to maintain 30%, 16 hours, the mushroom body has been basically dry, can be long closed drain window . When using a nail top pressure mushroom cover to feel hard and a slight nail traces, turning squeaky sound, indicating that the dryness of mushrooms is enough, can be out of the room cooling packaging.

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