1 Variety Resistant varieties suitable for local planting are selected according to the cultivation season. Precocity is dominated by high-temperature resistant varieties, such as excellent, medium-maturing varieties are mainly medium-temperature varieties, such as seasonal green and green belts, and late-maturing varieties are mainly low-temperature varieties such as Shenglv.
2 During the cultivation season, the cityâ€™s broccoli is generally dominated by autumn and winter cultivation. According to different varieties of early, middle and late maturity, the sowing date is from the beginning of August to the middle of September, the harvest period is from late October to the middle of March and the following year.
3 Seedling and seedling management
3.1 According to the cultivation conditions and requirements, seedlings can use conventional methods such as open seedlings and plug seedlings, as well as facilities for rain protection, pest control, and shading.
3.2 Seedbed preparation Choose a land with high dryness, high ventilation, sunny sun, deep soil, loose texture, and good irrigation and drainage. It is best to use fertile garden soil as a seedbed without cruciferous vegetables in recent years. A few days before planting, moderately deep-swirling tillage soil, 15 tons of organic fertilizer, 30 grams of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, and 50% thiophanate or 50% carbendazim and 5% fipronil 1500 per 1 square meter of seedbed. The liquid is used to sterilize the soil and level the surface. Can also be used 50% carbendazim wettable powder sifting fine soil mixing, sowing 2/3 shop on the bed surface, 1/3 covered on the seed. For every 667 square meters, Daejeon needs a seedbed of 10 square meters.
3.3 Sowing According to local climate and species characteristics, select the suitable sowing period. Before seeding, use 0.4% of 50% thiram for wettable powder, 0.4% of 50% carbendazim WP, or soak in warm soup (55Â°C) for 1ï½ž2h, and soak to dry (this method is not suitable Coated seeds). Inject water into the bottom of the planting surface, planting 20 to 25 g of seed per 667 square meters, spreading the seeds evenly on the surface of the bed, covering the fine soil (medicinal soil) 0.6 to 0.8 cm, moderately suppressing and laying the soil in bed soil not wet. Double shade nets, then watering waiting for emergence.
3.4 Seedling management should not be watered after emergence, otherwise it may easily lead to the occurrence of leggy and damping-off. In case of high temperature and drought, water should be moderately watered. Seedlings 2 leaves 1 heart seedlings planted, according to 8 ~ 10cm spacing, the size of the seedlings should be classified, watering live trees after the planting, after the live tree bed do not dry water, when watering should be poured water or water . The planting of plug trays is not carried out by planting, but it takes time to plant seedlings in order to cultivate strong seedlings and seedlings. Planting in the spring requires low temperature hardening. Summer and autumn nursery, when the temperature is too high, use watering, shading and other methods to cool down. In the early morning or evening when the water temperature is low, it is necessary to prevent the seedbed from drying out. At the same time, the rainstorm floods the seedbed and eliminates the seedbed water in time to control the occurrence of the disease.
3.5 Pest Control The common pests during the seedling stage are damping-off disease, blight, yellow stripe fleas, cabbage caterpillars, aphids, and nocturnal moth pests. In addition to seed treatment and seed bed treatment prior to sowing, they are used to prevent emergence. After the occurrence of pests and diseases, insecticides and fungicides are sprayed at the seedling stage for 2 to 3 times. The spray can be arranged on the second true leaf, the fourth true leaf, and 1 to 2 days before colonization. Spraying can also be arranged according to the actual situation.
In the past few years, downy mildew has become epidemic. One day before planting, it can be sprayed with 72% Preclosure 600 times liquid, 72% Kelu 600 times liquid or 53% Jinlei Duomi 600 times liquid, etc., to achieve colonization with the drug. Rhizoctonia was treated with 43% Halonic 5 000-fold liquid; Phlegm-falling disease was treated with 64% anti-virus 500 times liquid or 75% chlorothalonil 600 times liquid. Yellow striped hops, cabbage caterpillar available, 5% Ruijin special 1500 ~ 2000 times liquid control; night moth with 10% divided by 1500 times or 5% stuck 1000 ~ 1500 times liquid spray control in the evening.
4 Field Management
4.1 Pre-planting preparation should be based on non-cruciferous vegetable gardens, deep-turning 30 to 35cm 15 to 20 days before planting, exposure to deep trenches, deep trenches of 30 cm, lateral trench depth of 35 cm, and even trench width of 3.2 m (or 1.4m), flat surface. Basal fertilizer is mainly composed of high quality organic fertilizer, imported compound fertilizer and compound fertilizer. Under medium soil fertility conditions, combined application of high-quality organic fertilizer (mainly for high quality rotten pig manure) 1500kg, nitrogen fertilizer 4kg, phosphate fertilizer 3.6kg, potash 6kg or compound fertilizer 40 ~ 50kg, borax 1kg. Late-maturing varieties can reduce the amount of fertilizers as appropriate.
4.2 Colonization is usually carried out about 1 month after sowing and 5 to 7 true leaves are planted. The cultivation density of the fresh-keeping ball outlet is 60-70cm, and the plant spacing is 40-50cm, ie 2100-2300 plants per 667m2. When the weather is fine in autumn, the colonization must be carried out after 4:00 in the afternoon. The seedlings should be divided separately, planted with soil, lightly planted and lightly pressed, and a small amount of water be planted while planting. The next morning the trees should be irrigated with live water. When the weather is hot, it needs to be continuous. In the morning and evening watering seedlings for 4 to 5 days.
4.3 Fertilizer management after planting The broccoli is neither tolerant nor afraid of drought. After easing the seedlings, drainage is mainly used to prevent leggy and waterlogging. According to broccoli fertilizer requirements, in addition to full-base fertilizer, it is generally necessary to top-dress 2 or 3 times. The cultivating tillage within 2 months from the start of seedling emergence to budding is carried out 2 to 3 times, and later loose soil can be combined with top dressing.
For 667 square meters, the early top-maturing varieties were topdressed for 10 days after planting, and applied diammonium phosphate 8~10kg; the second top dressing was applied when the bud diameter was 2~3cm, applying high-quality compound fertilizer 25~30kg and Potassium chloride 5 to 10kg. The first time of late-maturing varieties was about half a month after planting, and 5 to 7 kg of diammonium phosphate was applied. When the second fertilizer was close to budding, 15 to 20 kg of compound fertilizer and 5 to 10 kg of potassium chloride were applied. The third top dressing is bud fertilizer, that is, when the bud diameter is 2 ~ 3cm, apply high-quality compound fertilizer 25 ~ 30kg, while using 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 0.25% boric acid solution, spraying the leaves 1 ~ 2 times.
Watering was performed one day before each fertilization. The second water was poured on the second day after application (except on rainy days), and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer could not be topdressed for 20 days before harvest. Begin to harvest to keep the soil moist. The amount of watering should be controlled in the later period of the ball, and the flooding should be prohibited in the week before harvest. In order to improve the antifreeze ability, appropriate irrigation can be made before the onset of the cold wave.
5 Pest control For early maturing varieties, due to sowing mostly in the middle and early August, the temperatures before and after budding are relatively high, and the amount of rainfall is relatively low. Usually, downy mildew rarely occurs, except for the occurrence of blight and tripping. In case the disease needs to be prevented and controlled in time, the entire period of growth is mainly to control pests.
In the late-maturing varieties, due to the declining temperature, the occurrence of downy mildew should be prevented in the vegetative growth period. In particular, if crucifer crops are planted in the surrounding environment and the former is a crucifer crop, it should be controlled in time to prevent diseases. Occurrence, reduce the expansion of the amount of bacteria in the field and the re-infection of pathogens; prevention and control must be focused before and after budding, choose to spray pesticide protection, this is the control of the late "black heart disease" outbreak of the most important part. Especially in the climatic conditions such as rain and foggy days that are likely to cause increased humidity and low temperatures in the field, more timely prevention and control is required.
In our city, broccoli, Daejeon's main pests and diseases are defrosting mildew, sclerotinia, black rot, diamondback moth, cabbage caterpillar, beet armyworm, Spodoptera litura, aphids, and rapeseed meal. Downy mildew can be sprayed with Jinleiduomier, Preclox, Kelu, Anker, etc. Especially for the broccoli flower ball downy mildew, it is emphasized that before and after budding and budding, it usually takes 2 to 3 times, but not more than 5 times, and the interval is 7 to 10 days. Sclerotinia can be sprayed with Susking or Dacron. Black rot can be prevented and treated by necessity. Plutella xylostella, Pieris rapae, and Noctuid pests were treated with pesticides at the seedling stage. When the first time the heart was damaged, the dish caught the younger larvae during the peak period and used Flyoxextrin and Xiexi for spraying. To master the prevention and treatment in the early stage of the disease can achieve better control effect.
6 Harvested with stainless steel cutters when the flower bulbs are fully inflated, the buds are relatively uniform, the colors are the same, and the balls are not scattered. According to the export of broccoli, it is required to lengthen a few centimeters in the stem and leaves, cut flat with leaves, transport with plastic baskets, prevent mechanical damage, cover the leaves on the harvesting basket, and timely sales to prevent fever and water loss and turn yellow. After the main flower bulbs were harvested for the top and side flowers, the varieties were selected to have strong lateral branches, and the field management was strengthened. After the side branch flower balls were grown to a certain standard, they were harvested again.
Author unit: Zhejiang Taizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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