1. What are the benefits of mechanized conservation tillage? As a result of comprehensive domestic and international research and practice, mechanized conservation tillage has at least three major benefits:
(1) Farmers can directly obtain significant economic benefits:
1Reduce work procedures and reduce operating costs. Judging from the current reality, each farm can save 20-40 yuan in operating expenses.
2 Because it has obvious water-saving and drought-resistance functions and reduces the number of times of watering or watering, it can save water expenses by 5-30 yuan per mu (water fees vary from place to place).
3 Reduce labor intensity and reduce labor input.
4 Increase wheat yield and income by 10-30 yuan per mu.
5 The implementation of no-tillage sowing has greatly reduced the accumulated temperature during the growing period of crops from the time of receiving sowing, increased the multiple cropping index or the selection of varieties with large production potential and long growth period, which can greatly increase the annual production and increase income.
(2) To protect and increase the utilization of production resources and sustainable development of agriculture:
1 Gathering rain and snow, making full use of natural precipitation; reducing evaporation, saving irrigation water; protecting and saving water resources.
(2) To reduce the destruction of soil by mechanical farming; to suppress wind erosion and water erosion, reduce soil loss, and protect land resources.
3 The concentration of chemical fertilizers will deepen and make full use of fertilizer resources.
4 Straw residues return to the field, effective protection and enhancement of soil biology and microbial communities to improve soil organic matter and nutrient content, fertility and fertility, reduce fertilizer use, but also sustainable high yield.
(3) Protecting the environment 1 Complete the sowing of fertilization and straw residue with minimum soil tillage procedures, return land, protect the soil, and reduce and suppress dust storms.
2 no-tillage sowing straw returned to the field, straw has a way out will be able to cure the burning of straw, to avoid the pollution of the atmosphere.
3 The mechanized conservation tillage will make the land more fertilizer, gradually reduce the amount of fertilizer, improve the quality of crop products, and reduce the pollution of groundwater resources.
2. Conservative tillage, which can not be used with ordinary planters, must be done with no-tillage planters. No-tillage sowing operations are carried out on the ground with coverings and topsoil with relatively rigid roots. Fertilizers cannot be considered traditional. Tillage is sown on the ground and then plowed down. It is necessary to concentrate the application of the soil at the same time as the sowing. This requires a large amount of fertilizer and a deep application. This kind of ordinary planter will not work. The specially designed no-tillage seeder generally has a firm manufacturing frame and working parts, and has a large weight and a good performance of breaking into the soil. The distance between the openers is large, and special fertilizers and anti-blocking devices are designed. A special fertilizer application device ensures that there is a sufficient distance between the seed and the fertilizer. If the amount of fertilizer is increased, the seed will not be burned. For this purpose, conservation tillage must be done with a no-tillage, covered fertilizing planter.
3. What kinds of no-tillage sowing machines are currently? The models of no-tillage sowing machines are mainly 2BMQ-4 type band corn no-tillage seeder developed and produced by China Agricultural University; 2BFY series no-tillage fertilizer applied in Huxian planter's plant in Shaanxi. Planter; Hebei Nonghaha Machinery Co., Ltd. 2BMFS-5/10 no-tillage cover fertilizer planter, 2BMF-6C-2 wheat no-tillage fertilizer planter, 2BYF-3/4 fertilizer corn planter 2BYF-3/ Type 4 corn planter; Hebei Huaqin Machinery Co., Ltd. 2BMFS-2 corn no-tillage fertilizer planter, 2BMFS-4 wheat no-tillage fertilizer planter, 2BMFS-6/12 no-tillage cover fertilizer planter, 2BMFS -5/10 type no-tillage cover fertilizer planter; 2BQM-6D air-suction no-tillage cover planter of Wafangdian City Precision Seeder Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; 2BM-9 no-tillage of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University Machinery Plant Planter; Xi'an Rotary Seeder Factory SGINB-180Z4/8A8 type, SGTNB-200Z4/8A8 type multi-function Rotary Rotating Fertilizer Spreader, SGTNB-180Z4/8, SGTNB-200Z4/8 Precision Rotary Seeder; No. 2BQ-M3 no-tillage application of Shenyang Changqing General Machinery Factory Air suction precision seeder; 9MSB-2.10 type grass-free zero-tillage pine seeding unit, 2BMS-9A zero-tillage ripper seeder of Deli New Technology Equipment Factory, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia; 9MSB-2.10 type of Inner Mongolia Shangdu Mok Machinery Co., Ltd. Grain forage, no tillage, sowing and sowing unit. Xinjiang Machinery Research Institute is currently developing a suction-type fine no-tillage seeder.
4. What are the special requirements of no-tillage planter? The no-tillage planter with excellent performance is the key to adopting conservation tillage. No-tillage seeder in addition to the function of ordinary seeder, but also need to clear the grass discharge function, break into the soil function, seed fertilizer distribution function and ground shape and other capabilities.
5. What are the safety precautions in the operation of the no-tillage planter (1) The operator should understand the use performance and safety precautions of the implement before operating. Special attention should be paid to rotating parts such as the cutter shaft and row fertilizer (species) auger during operation.
(2) It is necessary to carefully check the technical status of tractors and implements and use them normally.
(3) Work should be carried out after the rotary cutter rotates normally. Do not allow equipment to be lowered in order to prevent plugging of the opener.
(4) It is forbidden to work when turning the implement on the ground and when reversing, and the operating power of the implement must be cut off when the implement is raised.
(5) Unusual noise in the equipment during operation should be immediately stopped and checked to eliminate the malfunction.
(6) When checking rotating parts or replacing parts, the power transmission of the implement must be cut off, and the tractor should be turned off if necessary.
(7) Do not stand on the pedals in the operation. Do not touch the rotating parts.
(8) Operation is prohibited when windy days, rainy days, or relative soil moisture content â‰¥ 70%.
(9) The machine works best when the moisture content of corn stalk is â‰¥ 41%.
6. What kinds of deep-seasonal machines have deep-seasonal machines? Xinjiang Eight-plate Spring Co., Ltd. ISQ-250, ISQ-340 all-round deep-seated machine, Aksu New Agricultural General Machinery Co., Ltd. ISLY-60 series deep loose plow; Hebei 1SZ-60 and 1SZ-360 deep vibration machines of Huaqin Machinery Co., Ltd.; 1SQ-250 type, 1SQ-340 type, and 1SQ-350 type all-round deep-swathe machines of Luxian Agricultural Machinery Plant; Shanxi rotary cultivator Plant 1S-3, 1S-5 type deep loosening machine; Baoding agricultural machinery factory 1SND series deep loosening machine.
7. What are the straw returning machines for straw returning machines? There are mainly FJ-150 straw returning machines for Akesu New Agricultural General Machinery Factory, and 1JHY-90B type straw shredding and returning machine for Hebei Nhahaha Machinery Co., Ltd., 1MY-150 Straw crushing and returning machine; 4JL-1.5 type straw crushing and returning machine of Hebei Huaqin Machinery Co., Ltd.; 4QW-155B type straw smashing and returning machine produced by Fuxin Agricultural Machinery Repairing Plant of Liaoning Province.
8. What is a mechanized root smashing technology? Mechanized root smashing The smashing and returning technology is a mechanized technique that cuts off the remaining root stalks after stalks are comminuted and then mixed in the plough layer soil by mechanical means. This technology is applicable to corn, soybeans and other crops grown in one area. Relevant tests have shown that returning land to the soil can help maintain the ecological balance of soil organic matter. After each mu of corn root is returned to the field, it is equivalent to adding 1.3 tons of farmyard manure with an organic matter content of 5%. Roots can also increase the biological activity of the soil, renew and activate the aging humus in the soil. The return of crops to the field can increase the yield per unit area of â€‹â€‹the crop, and the yield per hectare can be increased by more than 3% in comparison with the removal of roots.
9. What is the technical principle of mechanized straw whole field returning mechanized corn stalks to the whole field? The operation principle is to adopt the deep plough working machinery that is currently popularized and applied in China. After the crops are picked, they are kept in an upright state for deep ploughing. Tumbling into the soil layer to achieve the return of straw to the whole plant. This technology not only has the effect of straw comminution and direct returning to increase the fertility of soil organic matter, but also has the function of reducing one-time mechanical comminution of straw in the field, reducing the purchase cost of machine tools, saving fuel oil, and reducing production costs.
10. What are the plant protection machinery? Currently, domestic plant protection machinery has 3W-650 hanging boom sprayers of Modern Farming Technology Co., Ltd.; and WFB-180AC backpack spray duster of Shandong Huasheng Agricultural Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Hebei Handan Agricultural Medicine Machinery Factory's 3W-2000 Traction Spray Boom Sprayer, 3WM-650 Hanging Spray Boom Sprayer; 3WM6-350 Sprayer, 3WM10-1000, Heilongjiang Province Yanweidao Group Plant Protection Machinery Co., Ltd. Sprayer; Aksu New Agricultural General Machinery Co., Ltd.; Shihezi Plant Protection Machinery Factory 3W series sprayer sprayer.
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