Soil is the material basis for seedling production and is the source of water and nutrients needed for seedlings, and soil fertility is the most critical factor in the continuous functioning of nursery functions. In the nursery production, with the increase of nursery years, the decline in nursery soil fertility is very common. Especially in recent years, due to the economic crisis of the state-owned nursery, the short-term behavior of the people and the lack of scientific guidance, the soil fertility in the nursery has been declining year by year, and the problem of declining nursery quality and yield has been very prominent. According to the practice of nursery production and nursery soil management for many years, we have summarized the following measures to maintain the nursery soil fertility.
1, rational farming
Tillage measures are an important part of nursery, and rational farming can improve soil physical and chemical properties. Rational plowing can increase soil porosity, enhance soil aeration, and facilitate root respiration and nutrient absorption. Increased air in the soil, but also easy to increase the temperature, reduce the temperature difference between day and night, promote soil microbial activity, accelerate the decomposition of organic matter. Rational farming can also improve the soil structure, enhance soil water permeability and water storage capacity, and to a certain extent weeds can eliminate weeds and pests and diseases.
Tillage includes site preparation and cultivators. The purpose of site preparation is to improve soil structure, increase soil fertility, maintain water content, eliminate weeds and pests and diseases, and facilitate the growth of seedlings. The nursery site preparation is best carried out in the fall autumn ploughing, but also immediately after the autumn seedling cultivation. If it is necessary to prepare soil in the spring, it is advisable to farm the soil when the soil is defrosted to a certain depth to facilitate soil conservation. The soil preparation depth is about 20 centimeters. In order to make the soil structure good, the soil moisture content is very important when the soil preparation, when the soil cohesion, plasticity, adhesiveness is small, the soil preparation effect is good, when the soil moisture content is 50%â€”60% of the saturated moisture content, the arable land resistance is the least, and the efficiency is the highest. The best quality. For example, if the soil is hard or if there are many soil blocks behind it and they are not broken, water can be poured once. When the surface soil is dry and the bottom soil is moist, it can be ploughed; if the soil is too wet, the soil can easily become the physical properties of the soil, so the soil When wet, it is not suitable for site preparation. After the nursery is ploughed, it must be thoroughly smashed. There should not be large blocks of soil. Grassroots and stones should be eliminated.
For the cultivator, the best cultivation time is selected. When the soil moisture is too high, the cultivator will destroy the soil structure, and the porosity, permeability and ventilation of the cultivated soil will be significantly deteriorated, which will adversely affect the growth of the seedlings, generally as the soil moisture content exceeds. Withering water content, and below 70% of the field capacity, the most suitable for farming, heavy loam soil does not exceed 37%, light loam soil does not exceed 30%, sandy loam soil does not exceed 22%, the soil is too wet to prohibit cultivation.
2, leisure rotation
Leisure is an effective method to restore the nursery's fertility. After the nursery has cultivated seedlings for a certain number of years, the soil fertility will be reduced. The best solution is to plant a nursery stock for each nursery, a one-year leisure or rotation for nursery, and leave the land unused for recreation. Until the rainy season, the weeds in the ground will be turned into water and allowed to rot to make fertilizer. The time for rolling is too early and weeds will grow after weeding. If the time is too late, the seeds of weeds will mature, which will cause the nursery in the next year to become deserted.
Rotation is after planting seedlings, planting one year of crops or cultivating seedlings of seedlings of the same type as the former seedlings. Crops are generally grown with soybeans, mung beans and other legumes. After the autumn crops are harvested, the cultivars are combined with the base fertilizers for cultivation, and the seedlings are finished. The seedlings are produced in the spring of the second year. Seedlings are generally replaced by coniferous and broad-leaved species alternately, alternate between deep-rooted and shallow-rooted species, cultivating seedlings and cultivating large seedlings.
3, organic fertilizer
The most effective way to use land, raise land and protect land in the process of raising seedlings is to increase soil organic fertilizer. Increasing soil organic matter content plays an important role in increasing ground temperature, maintaining a good soil structure, and regulating soil fertility and water supply capacity. After a certain amount of organic fertilizer is applied to the soil, favorable conditions are created for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Organic colloidal structures such as humus, pectin, and polysaccharides can also be formed through decomposition and biochemical processes. These cements and soils form different sizes, Different shapes of agglomerates and aggregates.
The methods for applying organic fertilizer include basal fertilizer, top dressing and green manure.
Base fertilizers include peat, manure, compost, etc. Base fertilizers must be decomposed. The fertilizer should be spread evenly before site preparation and then turned to soil in combination with site preparation. Base fertilizers should be applied before seedlings are raised, depending on the soil conditions of the nursery and the types of nursery stocks. The amount of fertilizer applied is generally 66.6 to 133.3 kg/ha.
Topdressing organic fertilizer: Mainly composted manure and urine are mainly used. Top dressing should be applied in a dispersed manner. Strips can be used for fertilization and can be combined with cultivating; cultivating large seedlings can be used to dig holes or circular radiation around the roots. Trench digging application, watering in time after topdressing organic fertilizer.
Planting green manure: it can be combined with nursery or leisure or rotation. The best leguminous plants such as alfalfa, soybean, and amorpha are used. The planting density should be large. When the plants are fresh and the seeds are immature during the rainy season, they will be turned into the soil. Let it rot for fertilizer.
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