How to use pesticides in the production of pollution-free vegetables

The production of pollution-free vegetables has become one of the major tasks of the current vegetable production and management departments. There are many factors that restrict the production of pollution-free vegetables. How to correctly select and use various pesticides in the prevention and control of vegetable pests and diseases has become a key issue in the development of pollution-free vegetables. This article discusses several suggestions as follows. I. Selection of pesticides 1. Selection of microbial pesticides or biochemical preparations Microbiological pesticides or biochemical preparations (agricultural antibiotics) can both prevent and treat insects, do not pollute the environment and poison humans and animals, and are safe to natural enemies and do not produce resistance to pests. Such as HD-1, insecticidal fungus 6, Jinggangmycin, kasugamycin, agricultural streptomycin, BT emulsion, agricultural resistance 120 and so on. 2. Actively promote the use of non-pharmaceutical substances to control the occurrence of pests. Such as 800--1000 times of urine washing mixture (1 part of urea, 0.2 parts of detergent powder, 100 parts of water are mixed), lime tobacco water (a little lime soaked in tobacco day and night filtration), etc., for the control of aphids The effect is more than 85%; with 100--150g ammonium bicarbonate plus 15kg of water spray, can control cucumber downy mildew: 667 square meters spray 1.5% - 2% of superphosphate solution can prevent cotton bolls on pepper Insects, tobacco budworms, etc.; filter the dead cabbage worms into water and filter them; spray them with filtrates to control cabbage caterpillars, ground tigers, and other pests; crushed 20--30 grams of garlic and onion into puree, and add 10 kilograms of water to stir , Take the filter solution to spray, have a good control effect on aphids, spider mites. 3, the rational use of chemical pesticides 1 It is strictly prohibited to use "two high three induced" (ie, high toxicity, high residue, teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic) chemical pesticides. Such as methamidophos, carbofuran, 1605, 1059, 3911, omethoate, insecticidal fleas, chlorpyrifos, 666, DDT, methylisotriphos, methamidophos, zinc phosphide, monocrotophos, Fluoroacetamide, organic mercury preparations, etc. Although some pesticides are low in poison but have long residues, they should not be used on vegetables. For example, dicofol, its components are decomposed slowly and remains in crops after one year of application. 2 Select high-efficiency, low-toxic, low-residue chemical pesticides. The production of pollution-free vegetables allows the use of certain low-toxicity chemical pesticides. However, the toxic residual substances in vegetables cannot exceed the national standards, and the metabolites in the human body are harmless and can be easily eliminated from the human body. This has little lethal effect on natural enemies. Such as trichlorfon, cypermethrin, furazolidone, konjac, kung fu emulsifiable concentrate, Bordeaux mixture, DT, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil, mancozeb, beta-aluminum, zinc sulfate , trisodium phosphate, weak virus vaccine N14 and so on. 3 Select targeted medium-toxic pesticides with good efficacy. In the case of using low-toxicity and low-residual pesticides, pests can not be extinguished, and moderately toxic pesticides can be used. However, there are two points that must be taken into account when using these pesticides. First, the pesticide should be applied strictly in accordance with the safe use procedures of pesticides, and the concentrations and application times should not be increased. Is to choose the relatively low toxicity of the agents, such as insecticidal double, good year Feng, Bataan and so on. 4 Select specific insect growth regulators. Such as diflubenzuron, Nongmonte, Volt, CPT, etc., such chemical pesticides, insecticidal mechanism is to inhibit the growth and development of insects, so that it can not peeling propagation, its high insecticidal, and very low toxicity to humans and animals. Second, the use of pesticides 1, the right medicine to the full understanding of the performance of pesticides and the use of methods, based on the type of pest control, the use of suitable types of pesticides or formulations. For example, bufalin has specific effects on whiteflies and nymphs, while it is ineffective against worms of the same type; wolfberry has special effects on peach pods and has poor efficacy in controlling melon worms; metalaxyl (rumyxa) against various kinds of vegetables. , early blight, late blight, etc., but can not control powdery mildew. In the prevention and control of pests and diseases in the protected areas, in order to reduce the humidity, there is flexibility in the selection of aerosols or dusts. Under conditions of high temperatures, sulphur preparations are used to prevent mecalyptus tea and yellow powder and powdery mildew, which are prone to phytotoxicity. 2. Appropriate period of medication According to the occurrence and damage of pests and diseases, strictly control the best period of prevention and treatment, timely medication. Before sowing vegetables or transplanting, should take seedlings, greenhouse disinfection, soil treatment and seed dressing and other measures; when the aphids, ticks occur, low-density whitefly use local application. Under normal circumstances, medication should be given in the morning, medication in the summer afternoon, and medication before watering. 3, the use of appropriate concentration and dose of different vegetable varieties, varieties and reproductive stages of drug resistance are often different, should be based on the toxicity of pesticides and pests and diseases, combined with climate, seedlings, strictly control the dosage and concentration, prevent vegetables There are phytotoxicity and natural enemies, as long as the pests are controlled below the level of economic damage. Such as powdery mildew control for disease resistance varieties or light only triadin for every 667 square meters of 3--5 grams (active ingredient), and for sensitive varieties or heavy occurs when the need for 7--10 grams per 667 square meters. In addition, if application techniques such as covert application (such as seed dressing) or high-efficiency spray (such as low-volume fine mist spray) are applied, and the use of different types and types of pesticides for reasonable alternation and rotation is encouraged, the utilization rate of pesticides can be increased, and the reduction can be achieved. The number of medications used to prevent pests from producing resistance, thereby reducing the amount of medication used and reducing environmental pollution. 4. The rational compounding agent adopts the mixed drug method to achieve the purpose of controlling multiple pests in a single application, but the pesticide compounding should be to maintain the active ingredient of the original drug or have a synergistic effect, and no toxic and good physics should be produced. Characters are the premise. In general, various neutral pesticides can be mixed; neutral pesticides and acidic pesticides can be mixed; acidic pesticides can be mixed; alkaline pesticides can not be mixed with other pesticides (including alkaline pesticides); microbial pesticides (such as BT Emulsions) cannot be mixed with fungicides and pesticides with strong absorption. 5. Ensure that the pesticides used in the safety interval are between the date of vegetable harvesting and the date of last use of pesticides. There should be a certain interval between days to prevent pesticide residues in the vegetable products. The usual practice is to have at least 6-8 days in summer, 8-11 days in spring and autumn, and 15 days in winter, and the vegetables should be rinsed thoroughly before consumption. China Agricultural Network Editor

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