According to investigations by relevant departments: The utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in China is only about 35%, which is heart-wrenching. On the one hand, many places are not yet prosperous. There are still many places where money is used. Farmers spend about two-thirds of their money on fertilizers. On the other hand, a large amount of lost material is causing soil consolidation. Groundwater forms serious pollution, and all these are related to our fertilization habits and scientific awareness.
I. Problems in current fertilization
In recent years, with the increasing input of chemical fertilizers, people have found that chemical fertilizers are not so good. What are the reasons for reducing the effect of increasing chemical fertilizers? The following are summarized:
(a) The structure of fertilization is irrational and the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is out of balance. At present, some farmers still fertilize according to traditional experience, and there are serious blindness and randomness. The long-term blind fertilization has resulted in an abnormal amount of nitrogen, potassium deficiency and excess phosphorus in the soil, resulting in an increase in the amount of fertilizer and no increase in yield, resulting in serious waste.
(b) The fertilization method is not scientific. Paying attention to the application of base fertilizer and neglecting top dressing will cause defertilization in the later stages of crop growth. The shallow application of fertilizer is also an important reason for the low utilization rate of chemical fertilizers. Most farmers still use manual methods to apply fertilizer to the crops. Although labor is saved, it is very easy to cause the loss and evaporation of chemical fertilizers.
(3) Trace elements have not received due attention. Because the trace elements in the soil are not supplemented for a long time, their contents can no longer meet the growth needs of the crop. According to the minimum nutrient law, even a reasonable proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can affect the crop yield.
Second, an effective way to increase the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers
At present, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in China is only 35%. How can we increase the utilization of chemical fertilizers?
(A) vigorously promote formula fertilization technology. According to the law of fertilizer demand, soil test results and fertilizer utilization rate, adjust the reasonable amount and proportion of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements, so that the crop can get a full and reasonable supply of nutrients, maximize the potential for crop growth, Improve economic efficiency.
(B) to improve overall fertilization methods. According to the law of fertilizer demand of crops, fertilization can be reasonably applied in stages at all stages of crop growth to meet the nutrient supply during the whole growth period of the crop and achieve the purpose of economic fertilization; in addition, vigorous fertilization and deep fertilization should be strongly encouraged to minimize fertilizers. The loss increases the utilization of chemical fertilizers.
(C) fertilizer, organic fertilizer application. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and various trace elements, organic fertilizers also contain a large number of beneficial microorganisms and organic colloids, which have important functions such as soil improvement and fertilizer conservation, and can make up for the single nutrient caused by single application of chemical fertilizers and are easily affected. Due to the disadvantages of fixed soil and easy leaching, the loss of chemical fertilizers is small, and it is beneficial to increase the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers.
(D) Other ways to increase fertilizer utilization.
(1) Look at soil fertilization. Such as: sand soil, should use less fertility method of fertilization.
(2) Do not mix ammonium fertilizers with alkaline fertilizers. Alkaline fertilizers such as grass ash, lime, and kiln ash can not be mixed with ammonium nitrogen fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, and liquid ammonia. Otherwise, after mixing, it will cause the loss of nitrogen volatilization and reduce the fertilizer efficiency.
(3) Urea should not be watered immediately after application, and it is not easy to apply before heavy rain, otherwise, urea can easily be lost with water.
(4) Avoid using chemical fertilizers such as urea, ammonium chloride, and potassium nitrate, which are toxic and corrosive to seeds, as a seed fertilizer so as not to affect seed germination and cause seedling deficiency.
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