First, nursery selection and planning
(I) Nursery selection
The selection of nursery land should be based on specific conditions, be adapted to local conditions, be properly improved, and establish a nursery. The following points must be taken into consideration when determining nursery sites:
Should choose to leeward sunny, good sunshine, flat or slightly inclined slope. Large slopes should not be selected as a nursery. The groundwater level in the groundwater should be less than 1.5m. If the groundwater level is too high, it should be done in Taitian and drainage. Otherwise it is not suitable to be nursery land. Seedlings are easy to grow on fertile ground. Therefore, in the later stage of seedling growth, water and fertilizer supply should be controlled to promote the growth of branch shoots.
Fertile sandy loam is the most suitable for breeding hazelnuts. Due to its physicochemical nature, the soil has good air permeability and is suitable for soil microbial activity. It is beneficial to seed germination and seedling growth. It must be raised and planted with few wounds and roots. Other viscous heavy soils, sandy soils and saline-alkali soils must be used as nurseries. First of all, soil improvement was carried out by adding sand, soil and repairing the land in Taiwan. At the same time, a large amount of organic fertilizer was applied, otherwise the seedlings could not be used.
3. Water source
When choosing a hazelnut nursery, pay special attention to irrigation problems. There must be water conditions: river water, reservoir, and well water. Seed germination or bead rooting must keep the soil moist, the seedlings grow in shallow roots, weak in drought resistance, and have outstanding water requirements. If moisture cannot be supplied in time, it can cause growth to stop or even die. However, the hazel tree has a shallow root system, high respiratory intensity, and fear of delirium. Therefore, attention must be paid to drainage.
Nursery requires many materials to enter the nursery. Therefore, the establishment of a nursery must take into account the ease of transportation, which can improve ergonomics and increase economic efficiency.
(b) Nursery planning
After the nursery is selected, the total area of â€‹â€‹the nursery shall be determined according to the nursery plan, topographic maps shall be prepared for field measurements, and then the overall planning of the nursery shall be made in accordance with the technical requirements for nursery.
1. Divide the district
The community is the basic unit for organizing nursery production. It is also called a field operation area. In order to reduce costs, the planning of the community should be as far as possible to facilitate mechanized operations. The flat area should be rectangular. The size of the area should be based on the overall area. It should be considered for ease of operation. It should be combined with the roads and irrigation and drainage systems. The area of â€‹â€‹the flat area should be larger, and the area on the slope should be smaller. The planning of the community should meet the design requirements of different nurseries.
2. road system
In the large nursery, the main road runs through the nursery center and is connected to the main building. The road is open to the outside, and each operation area is inside. The large agricultural machinery and trucks should be able to travel. The width of the road is 5-6 m, which is the boundary of the large district or community. Branch roads should be capable of one-way driving of farm implements and medium-duty trucks, with a road width of 3 to 4m as a community boundary. In addition, a working track should be set up. The width of the work track is 2m and small farm implements can be used.
3. Irrigation system
The design of the irrigation and drainage system of the nursery shall be combined with the road and connected with the location of the water source. The irrigation system shall be on one side of the road and the drainage system on the other side. Drainage can be ground ditch, underground pipe can also be. Drainage is carried out from high to low, and the slope ratio is generally reduced to 0.3% to 0.5%, achieving rapid drainage. The modern irrigation system for hazelnut nurseries includes pipe irrigation, sprinkling irrigation system and drip irrigation system, which is suitable for hazel sands breeding.
4. Nursery building
Including offices, farm equipment rooms, work rooms, warehouses, underground storage and so on. It should also include greenhouses, greenhouses, and drug pools. The office should be located along the main road, and the production facilities should be easy to operate, near the roads and work areas.
(c) Nursery design
Modern professional nurseries should carry out garden design on the basis of plot planning. The hazel plant nursery should include the following sections based on the propagation method and breeding technical requirements.
1. Mother Garden
The main purpose is to provide propagating materials such as scion and cuttings, cultivate good varieties, and plant each plant.
2. Open field breeding area
Reproduction of sexual and asexual seedlings of hazel.
(1) Self-rooted nursery nursery 1 layering nursery; 2 cutting propagation nursery.
(2) Grafting seedlings are planted and cultivated in a nursery, near the mother garden.
(3) Seedling seedlings are planted in seedling nursery gardens, and rootstock seedlings are planted in order to be close to the graft nursery nursery.
3. Conservation area
Including greenhouses, plastic greenhouses, graft cutting processing studios, etc., should be arranged to facilitate the installation, commissioning, and use of water and electricity supply systems.
Second, the cultivation of self-rooted seedlings
(A) The concept of self-rooted seedlings
Self-rooted seedlings are clonal seedlings formed by adventitious roots from hazel branches or shoots. Self-rooted seedlings are the main seedlings for hazel cultivation, the main hazelnut-producing countries in the world, and large-scale hazel cultivation gardens in Turkey, Italy, and the United States are self-rooted seedlings (mainly seedlings). Pingou hybrid hazelnuts are mainly cultivated with self-rooted seedlings. Because self-rooted seedling propagation material is collected from branches of adult trees, its physiological age is mature, and it can not only maintain the genetic traits of the varieties, but also facilitate early results. Therefore, self-rooted seedlings can be directly planted and established.
(II) Types of self-rooted seedlings
According to the definition of the self-rooted seedlings, the hardwood cuttings and seedlings that adopt the annual branch cutting propagation are called the green branch cutting seedlings that are propagated at the new shoots of the year; the hardwood branching seedlings that are propagated through the annual branching pressure shoots; The green shoots were planted by stem shoots and tissue cultures of the stem sections of the stem shoots or stem sections of the shoots. Tissue culture seedlings have been successfully developed in the United States and Italy, and China has not yet achieved a technological breakthrough.
(three) layering seedlings
Layering seedlings are carried out in a bead propagation garden.
1. Establishment of a batten propagation farm
(1) Planting female parent trees in the single planting layer nursery garden: Planting the excellent seedlings of the species to be planted in the propagation garden at a certain spacing, the plant spacing is lm2m, 1.5m~2m, lm3~4m, and the traveling direction is north and south. If the line spacing of mechanized work should be widened to 4m so that all kinds of vehicles and machines can walk between the rows. A variety is planted on the same line and well documented.
(2) Parenting trees are planted in the banding and nursery plantation, and the excellent seedlings to be propagated are planted at a row spacing of 3 to 4 meters, and the plant spacing is encrypted at a rate of 0.5 to lm. The planting direction is north and south. In the branch, a band is formed in the line and the bandwidth is 1 meter. The length of the band depends on the length of the north-south direction of the cell. This method of planting the mother tree is called banding seedlings.
The established individual planting and nursery gardens and banding and nursery gardens can produce beadlings 2 to 3 years old if the mother tree grows well. Mainly adopting the green branch bar method. The mother tree is sheared before the spring sprout to promote the emergence of primordial branches or root litchi, and then nursed by the following methods.
(1) Pruning of the mother plant before the spring shoots in the upright layer of green branches, in which one main branch is lightly trimmed to maintain the normal development of the mother plant, the remaining main branches are trimmed, and the residual branches at the base of the mother plant are sheared from the ground. Drop it. The mother plants were given basal shoots (germinate and root litchi). During the growth of the buds and root litchis, they should be watered in time, chase chemical fertilizers once and promote their growth.
Batten period: In principle, it is carried out when the basal branches are half-lignified, ie, the basal branches grow to 50-70 cm in height and the base has reached semi-lignification, which is in mid-June in Dalian and in late June in Shenyang.
Batten method: first remove the leaves of the base branch from the ground at the height of 20~25cm from the ground; then place the basal branches of the year, that is, in the position of 1~5cm from the ground, place the basal branches in a circle with the soft iron wire. Apply auxin over a height of 10 cm above the diaphragm. Then the basal branch of the mother plant was surrounded with tarred paper and made into a hole. The height of the hole was 20-25cm. The size of the hole is determined by the number of seedlings. The principle is to keep the distance between the hole and the outermost basal branch 10cm. Fill the cavity with wet wood chips to root the bead in a moist and dark environment. Sawdust remains moist until the start of autumn. In the single planting nursery, the plants with normal growth and development of hybrid hazelnuts can grow 4 seedlings per mother plant at the age of 2 years, and 8 to 10 plantlets per mother plant at the age of 3 years, with an average of 4 years. The mother plants reproduce 15 to 20 seedlings, and each mother plant can reproduce 20 to 30 seedlings at an average of 5 years. Planting plants could not grow seedlings that year. In the banding nursery, the mother plants were planted densely on the rows, and the growth of the sprouting branches and root litchi of each plant were combined to form a wide lm band. The method of propagation of the bead was the upright layer of green branches. Before the spring buds sprouted, the buds and residual branches of the last year were re-cut (flat stem) to promote the initiation of a large number of sprouting branches and root litchi. When the shoot growth height is 50~70cm, the green branch bar can be made. The basic method is the same as the above-mentioned green branch upright bar. However, unlike the single upright battens, it is not necessary to surround the burrows. Instead, the sides of the ribs are covered with wood (25 cm wide), filled with wet wood chips, and the linoleum paper with a width of 25 cm can be used. On both sides, the middle is filled with wet wood chips, and the wet wood chips can also be directly piled around the bead branches.
(2) Hard-branch erecting strips were carried out before sprouting in spring. The plants grew more germinating branches in the previous year, and these annual buds were used for the lamination. The method is to select 1 to 3 germinating shoots as the main shoots in the center of each plant and not to suppress seedlings. The rest of the germinating branches were splayed at the base with a thin wire, or girdled, with a width of 1 mm or less. In the transverse (or girdling) position, l0cm or less, use a sharp knife to cut 2 to 3 knives with a sharp knife to a depth of the phloem, then smear auxin, then wet soil, height 25 to 30cm, or bred with wet wood chips. The soil (or sawdust) that was cultivated was kept wet throughout the year, and the seedlings were lifted after falling leaves in autumn.
(3) The arched pressure strips are hardwood strips. The hardwood layering period was carried out before budding in early spring and the material was a 1-year-old bud. The concrete stripping method: digging an annular groove around the mother plant cluster, each with a width of 20 cm. From the shoots, choose the branches to be bent into the furrows. Use a thin wire to cross the cuts or lint widths in the bent parts of the shoots. Apply auxin to the upper part of the shoots. Then fix the shoots in the furrow with wooden hooks and finally bury the shoots. The earth-to-ground surface is flat and pragmatic, keeping the batten branches upright and growing, and then keeping the soil moist to promote the rooting of the shoots. After the falling of D1 in autumn, the seedlings were separated from the mother plants. In general, 20-30 seedlings can be plucked per year per mother plant.
(four) cuttings and seedlings
There are two types of cuttings: green branch cuttings and hardwood cuttings. Hazel tree is a difficult root tree species, green branch cutting young, strong cell activity, easy to accept external stimuli to produce adventitious roots, so the main use of green branch cuttings. Hardwood cuttings have been carried out by the Institute of Economic Forestry of Oregon State University and the Yunnan Academy of Forestry in Europe. However, no satisfactory results have been obtained.
1. Green branch cutting requirements environmental conditions
(1) The indoor temperature of the temperature protection room is maintained at 25~28Â°C and the maximum temperature is no more than 30Â°C.
(2) Moisture and humidity Keep the relative humidity of the air above 95% and keep the green leaves from wilting.
(3) The percentage of light illumination can reach 60% to 70%, and the requirements for lighting in different periods are different.
2. Facilities In order to achieve the environmental conditions required for cutting green branches, a greenhouse or a plastic greenhouse is required, and the area is determined by the number of nursery.
(1) Temperature control equipment green shoots cut positive summer, control of high temperature is the key measure. Temperature control method: 1 top with a shade net, with light up to 60% to 70%; 2 open vents, but this will reduce the air humidity in the shed; 8 spray (with cold water), increase the humidity, reduce the temperature; 4 Use exhaust fans to eliminate hot air (increased power consumption, increase costs); 5 use water wall equipment, high cost, increase investment.
(2) Control of moisture and humidity Equipment Spraying equipment can be installed in greenhouses and greenhouses to spray indoors at any time.
(3) Control lighting equipment mainly uses shade nets and can reduce the temperature.
3. Slotting preparation Interposing width lm, length 6m, made of bricks, height 30cm, l0cm below the ground, 20cm above the ground, 5cm thick at the bottom with river pebbles, 5cm thick with river sand, more than 20cm with nutritive soil, nutrition The soil is made up of 1 part of perlite, 1 part of clean sand, 1 part of humus (leaved pine needles on the surface of the forest and rotted leaves). The cutting bed is disinfected with potassium permanganate solution.
(1) Collection of cuttings Semi-woody shoots of fine varieties are selected. Dalian is generally conducted around mid-June. The new shoots were cut with leaves. In the greenhouse, cuttings with 2 leaves and 3 nodes were cut (3 leaves of the top cuttings), and each leaf was cut into half leaves or left intact.
(2) Cuttings cut by cuttings, dipping auxin, and then inserted into the bed as soon as possible, cutting row spacing 12cml2cm, immediately after spraying to keep the leaves fresh and moist.
5. Slot management
Mainly to maintain the greenhouse or greenhouse environmental conditions meet the rooting requirements of cuttings, temperature control, moisturizing, suitable light. Spraying water is to keep the leaves fresh and regular. Normally high temperatures at noon need to be reduced by increasing the number of sprays, time, opening the vents, etc. When you cool early and late, you can reduce the number of water sprays and time, and you do not need to spray water at night. When the green leaves of cuttings are maintained for more than 30 days, the cuttings can be rooted. When the cuttings are inserted for 45 days, the cutting roots are well developed and can be transplanted.
6. Transplant seedlings
In greenhouses or greenhouses, the soil of the seedbed is deep-stripping to make a width of lm. The rooted seedlings are transplanted with leaves. Frequent spraying at the initial stage of transplants keeps the leaves green, allowing them to continue photosynthesis and promote twigs. The buds are full and full and the roots continue to grow. If you can make the bud full and full, cuttings can be completed. If the buds of the cuttings germinate, the new shoots should be matured to complete the cultivation of cuttings.
Fourth, nursery stock and storage
(a) raise seedlings
Seedlings that are bred in various ways can be raised and planted in the nursery after the management of a growing season.
1. Rise time
Green branches upright seedlings, hard branches upright seedlings, cuttings seedlings should be raised in the fall, grafted seedlings can be raised in autumn or spring. After the seedlings fall to the soil after freezing, the seedlings in the spring must be thawed in the spring and before germination. Before the emergence of seedlings, soil drought should be irrigated in advance, and when the soil moisture is appropriate, the seedlings should be raised again. The seedlings that emerged require that the length of the main roots and lateral roots be kept at least 20 cm, and that the roots should not be damaged too much.
2. Lifting method
The main root length of the seedlings and the roots of the seedlings are substantial. If the tractor is used to raise the seedlings, the root length of the seedlings will be saved. The bead seedlings, grafted seedlings and cutting seedlings are suitable for artificial seedlings, among which the position of the cutting bead seedlings should be paid attention to when the seedlings are to be pressed, and all the fibrous roots must be kept on the seedlings. Digging grafted seedlings should be excavated to reduce rootstock damage.
(II) Classification of Seedlings
Digging up the seedlings should be avoided as much as possible, and timely classification and pre-planting should be made according to the size and quality of the seedlings. The grading should be based on the seedlings specifications. Unqualified seedlings should be kept in the nursery to continue cultivation. In the grading process, unconsolidated shoots, pests and roots, rooted shoots, and grafted seedlings should be cut off at the same time. There is no uniform grading standard for the classification of seedlings. Based on the author's experience, a preliminary grading standard (Table 4-1) was proposed for reference by nurses and growers. Qualified seedlings can enter the seedlings planted in commercialized cultivation gardens. The basic requirements are: seedling height above 40cm, seedling stem diameter (basal diameter above 0.5cm), and more than 5 lignified roots. Because the hazel tree is shrub-like, sometimes it is shaped into a clump shape. The height of the seedling stem is not required to be too high, but the root system must be developed. The base diameter of the seedling is above 0.5 cm to meet the planting requirements.
Table 4-1 Grading Classification of Hazelnut Seedlings (for reference only)
Seedlings grade level specifications
Seedling diameter (cm)
Roots full of buds
Diameter base diameter (cm)
Lignification root number
60 or more
0.8 or more
20 or more
8 or more
5 or more
45 or more
0.6 or more
15 or more
5 or more
0.7 or more
20 or more
8 or more
5 or more
40 or more
0.5 or more
15 or more
5 or more
0.6 or more
20 or more
6 or more
5 or more
30 or more
0.5 or more
15 or more
4 or more
20 or more
0.3 or more
15 or more
4 or more
5 or more
Seedling grading is generally 3: Grade 1 is a high-quality seedling, that is, seedlings exceed the basic requirements specifications, and good lignification, development and full, strong seedlings, full buds, roots developed; 2 qualified seedlings, has reached the standard specifications of the garden seedlings; Grade 3 is unqualified seedlings. Below the specification standard, that is, half seedlings, it is necessary to continue cultivation in the nursery for one year.
(3) Storage of Seedlings
Hazel-striped seedlings and cuttings seedlings need to be planted in the fall and nursery, from the nursery and nursery to the second spring planting, there are still 4 to 5 months of dormant time, and the seedlings need to be properly planted and stored. Seedlings require a low-temperature and moist environment during dormant storage. The low temperature requires a temperature of 2 Â°C ~ -3 Â°C, this temperature will not sprout seedling buds, in dormant state, Shapei to keep it in a moist environment, so that seedling stems and roots without losing water. Therefore, there are three methods of preserving hazelnuts in the north:
1. Outdoor trench storage
In the vicinity of the nursery, choose a sheltered, dry, well-drained place to dug a false planting ditch. The width of the ditch is lm, and the depth is 80~100cm. The length of the ditch depends on the number of seedlings, and it is better to extend the ditch in the north and the south. Seedling root down, seedlings dry top up, seedlings dry top tilted south into the false planting ditch, put a layer of seedlings, training a layer of wet sand, the sand requires a clean sand, sand size l ~ 2mm. When raising seedlings, the height of nursery stock should be 2/3 of the seedling height. When the air temperature drops below 0Â°C, before the soil is frozen, the seedlings will be buried in wet sand and the top layer will be covered with wet soil. Thickness about l0cm.
2. Underground cellar storage
The depth of the underground cellar is 2m. In the winter in the north, the required temperature for seedlings can be kept between 2Â°C and -2Â°C. The seedlings are kept moist and the sand is kept moist. The air humidity in underground cellars can be maintained at more than 80%. It is suitable for wintering seedlings. Seedlings in the cellar are placed vertically, and the roots and seedlings are kept well below 30 cm in wet sand to ensure safe wintering of the seedlings.
3. Air-conditioned storage
Electricity is used to control the temperature of the storage and keep it cool. In the reservoir, seedlings were planted with roots under 30 cm with wet sand. This method is costly.
(D) Seedlings Packaging and Transportation
Hazel seedlings have poor water recovery capacity after being dehydrated, and water soaking can not restore the original status, seriously affecting the survival rate of planting. Therefore, hazel seedlings from the start, planting, transport and reach the planting site, any link must ensure that the hazel seedlings do not lose water, which should focus on protection during transportation.
1 By mailing seedlings, train shipping, air transport, and transporting a small amount of seedlings with small automobiles, the seedlings are packaged in the following way: seedlings are bundled with 50 or 100 strains, tied with rods, sealed with external plastic bags, and the roots of plastic bags are filled with a small amount of wet wood shavings. Increase the humidity inside the bag, or keep the water in the roots of the seedlings with a water-retaining agent or alum slurry. Plastic bags are wrapped in woven bags or sacks. Bags are affixed with labels, indicating the variety, quantity, grade, and departure time.
2 A large number of nursery stocks are transported in long-distance vehicles. Packing requirements: Use large blocks of plastic coins to cover the bottom of truck boxes, put the seedlings, water-retaining agents or mash, and put the seedlings in the trunk. Put all the seedlings in plastic sheets. Get up and keep the humidity of seedlings. The plastic cloth wraps seedlings with a canvas car cloth outside. In terms of transportation time, the temperatures in the northern autumn from late October to November and spring from February to April are suitable for long-distance transportation of seedlings.
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