The traditional model of pond fish farming

With the increasingly fierce market competition, the requirement for non-pollution, non-hazardous aquaculture technology and quality and safety upgrading of aquaculture species has become stronger and stronger, and the traditionally backward pond aquaculture industry has increasingly become an obstacle to achieving fishery efficiency improvement. Increase the bottleneck.
First, the basic infrastructure of the pond is poor and its economic foundation is weak. In the more than ten years after the reform and opening up in the last century from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, farmers in and around rural areas in Guangzhou voluntarily changed their contract responsibility fields into ponds. This kind of behavior will inevitably lack the scientific, unified, scale, and intensive layout. It is doomed to sporadic distribution and it is impossible to fully integrate and use natural resources. One of the disadvantages is that the water conservancy facilities are incomplete. They compete with the livestock and vegetable in the farmland during drought, and are vulnerable to storms and floods during the flood season, making the pond a shallow, thin, leaky, small, and collapsed stagnant pond. In addition, even in intensive culture ponds, the investment in fixed assets does not exceed 1,000 yuan. Therefore, there is a lack of modern, high-level, and fine-grained material conditions necessary for aquaculture production, such as feeding machines, aerators, water quality analyzers, and standard feeds. Pharmacy, etc., are difficult to achieve the scale of comprehensive operations. The fish farmer (field) lacks the necessary technical reserves, and does not have the technological transformation and the funds required for the expansion of the reproduction, but can only maintain the status of simple and repeated reproduction. This lack of technology, lack of funds, lack of market information, small production often can not meet the needs of the market, the contradiction between input and output is very sharp, especially in the Pearl River Delta region is becoming more and more expensive, more and more stringent environmental protection requirements Under the situation, it is difficult to ensure that it will not be eliminated.
Second, robbing destructive operations caused the aging of farming facilities. As the contracting period is short, the contracting households are robbed and destroyed. Although the separation of ownership and management rights is implemented to increase the output rate and efficiency of the ponds, the ponds are relatively concentrated to farmers who have funds and have technical and sales information. However, the contracting period is usually 3-5 years, and the time limit is short. Destructive operations are often performed within the contracting period. A large number of supporting pigs, chickens, ducks, geese and livestock are used in Tangtou, and land reclamation (flood-based) is used to grow grasses and rainstorms. On the one hand, a large amount of silt and residual fecal matter washed down the pond, resulting in a shallow water level, a thick deposit of silt, collapse of the pond foundation, and obsolescence of equipment. If the common domestic fish species are farmed, the fish price is low in recent years and the benefit is not significant. The contractor therefore refuses to invest money or economically accumulates the ponds to carry out low-improvement rectification, resulting in premature aging deterioration of the pond facilities, and a poorer culture environment. Lower efficiency, caught in a vicious circle.
Third, the ecological environment in aquaculture waters in the natural world is continuously deteriorating. With the development of modernization and urbanization, the domestic water consumption of residents of more than 400 and dozens of towns, including clothing factories, washing and bleaching plants, cement factories, electric power plants, and chemical plants along the banks of Dongjiang, Zengjiang, and Xifu Rivers The sewage, waste water, waste oil, exhaust gas, and waste dust have contaminated the ecological environment of the natural waters. Due to the overexploitation of water resources, the original ecological environment of aquatic resources has been severely damaged. Many aquatic animal and plant species have become extinct, and many aquatic plants have become extinct. Ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers have high vegetative coverage, and plants with a depth of several meters have clear water. Now, due to pollution, the water quality stinks and turns black, and some rivers reach the point where no fish can be caught and no fish can be fished. Secondly, due to the destruction of ecological balance, Shantouguang was planted poorly, and water resources gradually depleted. As a result, many fish breeding bases are unable to fish due to lack of water, and the aquaculture water area has decreased year by year.
4. The endogenous pollution of the ponds (mountains, reservoirs) in the aquaculture waters is very serious. Due to the interest-driven, ponds and other water aquaculture generally adopt high-density fish farming, feeding more, excreta in excess, and the excreta of supporting pond and livestock, causing the endogenous secondary pollution is very serious. According to estimates of relevant aquaculture experts, the amount of feces produced by raising 1 ton of freshwater fish by conventional high-density farming methods is equivalent to the amount of feces produced by 20 pigs, and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate is 7.3 and 10.3 times higher than that of ordinary ponds. The cost of pollution control in the later stage is greater than the profit of the breeding industry.
V. Aquatic seed germplasm degradation. Due to the poor management of the aquatic seedlings system, the management of aquatic breeding bases (seedlings and nurseries) is confusing. Many people in the industry are eager for quick success and profit, and the inbreeding and reproduction of aquatic fingerlings. Caused by a small number of farmed individuals with poor quality and poor quality, pure seed impure. Examples in the province include tilapia, which is not suitable for artificial breeding of ponds, ponds, ponds, reservoirs, or rivers and lakes. It can be seen everywhere. It grows to full size in three or four sizes, and there is no one on the market. Also consume feed. A typical example outside the province is the migration of crab crab germplasm into the South China Sea, and the serious degradation of the authentic Chinchilla species in the Yangtze River water system. Nowadays, it is necessary to import crab species from abroad for hybrid rejuvenation.
Sixthly, technological preparations are seriously inadequate, and technological upgrading is slow. Taking Zengcheng in Guangzhou as an example, 12 townships (streets) in Zengcheng have built fishing technology stations. In the institutional reform, the township fishing technology stations were merged into agricultural development companies (or service centers). The fishing technology stations existed in name only, and the city’s fishing technology The original establishment of the station was 45 people, and it was only 18 staff members. On the other hand, the current fish farmers have poor scientific and technological skills, lack sensitivity to development opportunities and scientific and technological information, and are still a traditional backward farming method. The direct result is The products and the market are not adapted, the cost of raising fish is increasing, the economic benefits are decreasing, and it is difficult to increase production and it is difficult to increase income. The current aquaculture industry is only a quantitative type of fishery and it is extremely incompatible with the quality consumption needs of domestic and foreign markets. During the Spring Festival in 2004, the pond fish market in China's major cities generally has different degrees of pressure pond phenomenon (especially when tropical and subtropical fish are cold-swamped, they will suffer large quantities of frozen dead and suffer heavy losses), if they do not reform the tradition again. Backward breeding is a combination of technology and market breeding. The aquaculture industry's road will go further and narrower.

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