Alternaria alternata

Apple deciduous spot, also known as brown zebra disease, mainly damages the leaves, especially the young leaves in the 20 days of leaf spreading; it can also damage petioles, annual branches and fruits.

Symptoms: The leaves are infected. The disease first appeared in early May, and a round brown spot with a diameter of 2 to 3 mm appeared. After the disease, the lesions gradually increased or expanded, forming a red-brown lesion of 5 to 6 mm with purple-brown edges. Dark dots or concentric rings. When the weather is wet, dark green to black moulds grow on both sides of the diseased area, namely the conidial stem spores and conidia. In the high temperature and rainy season, the lesions rapidly expanded and showed no plasticity. Part or most of the diseased leaves turned brown. Severely diseased young leaves are often distorted and their whole leaves dry up due to growth retardation. In summer and autumn, germs can infect the petioles. Petiole infected, resulting in dark brown oval depression spot diameter of 3 ~ 5mm, the infected leaf immediately fall off or break off from the petiole lesions. Shoots were infected, brown or gray-brown spots were found on leggy branches or annual branches. The buds turned dark, with depressions and necrosis, diameters of 2 to 6 mm, and edges cracked. Mildly diseased shoots only dehisced. The fruit was infected and there were 4 types of black spot, sore type, spot type, and fruit spot brown type, of which spot type was the most common. In the early stage, many small spots or rusts appear on the young fruit fruit surface. The infected fruit from mid-June to early August is brownish, with a diameter of 2~3mm, sometimes up to 5mm, and is easy to be sick. Cracks at the junction; near-mature fruits are mostly brown spots. During the storage period, the diseased fruit expands or decays slowly at low temperatures. When it is exposed to high temperatures, it is susceptible to fruit rot caused by secondary parasite infection.

Overwintering and over-summering: Leaf buds are an important source of primary infestation when the hyphae are overwintering on the outer scales of the buds to the internal mycoplasma. ?
Route of transmission and onset of disease: Conidia are produced in late spring and are initially infested with wounds or direct intrusion following airflow, wind and rain. Conidia have two activity peaks in one year: the first peak from early May to mid-June, the spore volume increased rapidly, resulting in a large number of diseases in the shoots and leaves of spring and autumn, and severe leaf failure; the second peak in September. Will once again increase the severity of autumn shoots, resulting in a large number of fallen leaves. Spore formation on the victim leaves occurred from late April to early May. Spores were produced on the shoots in July, so spores formed on the leaves earlier than on the shoots. In addition, the number of newly infected lesions increased significantly within 5 days after the new pumping period of apple shoots, and the new growth period stopped. Even with heavy rain, it was difficult to produce new infested patches. It appears that leaf age and rainfall also affect the disease. Popularity. The occurrence and prevalence of the disease are closely related to climate and species. High temperature and rainy diseases are prone to occur. In spring drought year, the disease initiation period is postponed; summer rainfall is heavy and the disease is heavy. In addition, weak tree vigor, poor ventilation and light transmission, low-lying terrain, high groundwater level, and tender branches and branches are all susceptible to development.

Control methods
1. Cut off diseased branches, remove fallen leaves, and burn them in the late fall and winter to reduce the amount of primary sources of infestation; strengthen cultivation and management: cut off long branches in summer, reduce late infestation sources, improve the permeability of orchards, and require low-lying land and high water levels in orchards. Pay attention to drainage. Rationally fertilize, increase tree vigor and increase resistance to disease; blockade of epidemic areas, prohibit collection of diseased scions and purchase of diseased seedlings;
2. Chemical control: Before spraying (after flowering in mid-May), spray 1:2:200-fold Bordeaux fluid or 10% Shigao water dispersible granules 2000-2500 times, 70% mancozeb wettable Powder 400 to 600 times liquid, 50% acetaminophen wettable powder 1000 times, 50% fast-inking wettable powder 1000 times, 36% thiophanate-methyl suspension 500 to 600 times liquid, 5% bacteriocin Clear 600 times liquid, 75% Dakkonin (chlorothalonil) WP 800 times, 10% POM wettable powder 1000 times, 3% POX (fresh polyoxin) 800 Double fluid.

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