Rice sheath blight

The symptoms are also called moire. From the seedling stage to the panicle stage can be disease. Leaf sheathing disease produces dark greenish water-blown edge blurs near the surface of the water. It gradually expands into an oval or moire pattern. The middle part is grayish green or gray-brown. When the humidity is low, the middle part is yellowish or grayish, and the central tissue is damaged. Translucent, dark brown edges. When the disease is severe, several lesions fuse to form a large lesion, showing an irregular cloud-like spot, often causing the leaves to yellow and die. Leaf lesions were also moire-like, the edges faded yellow, the lesions appeared green when the lesions were fast, and the leaves quickly rotted. The symptoms of the stalks were similar to the leaves. The later stage was yellow-brown and easily broken. In the ear and neck, the victim was initially tainted with green, and later became gray-brown. He often failed to head the ear, and the ear of the ear had more pods and the grain weight decreased. When the humidity is high, the disease minister produces a white net-like hyphae, which is then aggregated into a white mycelium cluster to form sclerotia. The sclerotia are dark brown and easily fall off. A layer of white powdery mildew is formed on the lesion under high temperature conditions, that is, the burden of the pathogen and the brachyspore.

The pathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk. called melon-degrading bacteria and belongs to Basidiomycotina fungus. The asexual state Rhizoctonia solani Khn is called Rhizoctonia solani and belongs to the fungus Subgenie Fungi. The main pathogenic mycelial fusion group was AG-1 with 95% or more, followed by AG-4 and AG-Bb. From the perspective of mycelial growth rate and the time required for sclerotia to begin to grow, R. solani AG-1 and AG-4 are faster, while Rhinobiomycete rhizoctonia AG-Bb is slower. It takes 3 days for AG-1 to form sclerotia on PDA at 23°C. Sclerotium dark brown round or irregular shape, more compact. The color of the colonies is light brown to dark brown; the AG-4 colonies are light grey-brown, the sclerotia take 3-4 days, brown, irregular, relatively flat, loose, and intergrated; the AG-Bb colonies are gray-brown and require the formation of sclerotia. 3-4 days, beige, round or near round

Shape, size, consistency, generally born in aerial mycelium.

Transmission routes and pathogenic conditions The pathogens mainly sclerotate in the soil for wintering, and they can also overwinter on mycelia or other hosts such as field weeds. In the spring and spring, the sclerotia floats on the water surface and mixes with other debris. After transplanting, the sclerotia adheres to the sheath of the rice plant near the water surface. The condition is suitable for the hyphae to invade the leaf sheath, and the aerial mycelium infects the neighboring plants. . The joint disease stage of rice began to increase sharply, and the disease spread horizontally and vertically.

Before the main damage was leaf sheath, after heading to the leaves, ear and neck extension. Early sclerotia falling into the water can also cause rice strains to re-infect. Sclerotium of early rice is the main source of infection for sheath blight of late rice. The number of sclerotia is the main cause of morbidity. There are more than 60,000 sclerotia per 667m2, and in case of suitable conditions, can cause sheath blight epidemic. High temperature and high humidity are another major cause of the disease. Temperatures of 18-34°C can occur, with an optimum of 22-28°C. Incidence relative humidity 70%-96%, more than 90% optimal. The temperature limit for mycelial growth was 10-38°C, and the sclerotia could be formed at 12-40°C. The optimum temperature for sclerotia formation was 28-32°C. When the relative humidity is above 95%, sclerotia can germinate and form hyphae. New sclerotia can be formed after 6-10 days. Sunlight can inhibit mycelial growth and promote the formation of sclerotia. Rice sheath blight is suitable for occurrence and prevalence under high temperature and high humidity conditions. In the early growing period, there was much rain, high humidity, low temperature, and the disease spread slowly. In the middle and late periods, the humidity was high, the temperature was high, the condition quickly expanded, and the high temperature and dryness later inhibited the condition. At a temperature of 20°C, the relative humidity was greater than 90%. Sheath blight began to occur. Temperatures ranged from 28 to 32°C. In the event of continuous rainfall, the disease developed rapidly. The temperature dropped below 20°C, and the relative humidity in the field was less than 85%. The onset was slow or stopped. Long-term deep-irrigation, partial application, late application of nitrogenous fertilizer, and the closure of rice, the progenitors promote the occurrence and spread of sheath blight.

Control methods (1) Selection of disease-resistant varieties. Rice resistance to sheath blight is the result of a series of complex physical and chemical reactions between rice and pathogenic bacteria. Rice plants have waxy layers and silicified cells resist and delay pathogens. A mechanical barrier to intrusion is a measure of the disease resistance of a variety, and it is also a rapid means of identifying the disease resistance of a variety. Rice has few resources with high resistance to sheath blight. At present, there are Boyou Cham 19 and Zhongyou Zao 81 on the early rice resistant varieties. The medium-maturing varieties include Yuwan No. 6 and Fulong Xiangyu. Late rice resistant varieties include No.14, Huayan No.45, Liaojing No. 244, Shennong No.43 and so on. (2) Sputum sclerotia, reduce bacteria source. To snoring on a large area every season and bring it deep outside the field. (3) Strengthen cultivation management

Fertilizer, top dressing early application, can not be partial nitrogen fertilizer, application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, the use of formula fertilization technology, so that the early stage of rice leafless, medium-term is not long, late is not greed. Irrigation to achieve shallow water delivery, adequate seedlings, dry field, rooting, fertilizer, re-sun, thin field light, long ear moist, not early water, prevent premature aging, to master the principle of "before the shallow, in the sun, after the moist" principle . (4) Chemical control. Grasp the appropriate period of prevention and treatment, and the rate of diseased points in the latter part of the delivery will reach 15%, that is, control of pesticide application. The preferred Guangxuanling agent 500-1000 times or 5% Jinggangmycin 100ml spray 50L water or 400L water. Or for every 667m2 with 20% trifenin EC 50-76ml, 50% thiophanate-methyl or 50% carbendazim WP 100g, 30% WP wettable powder 50-75g, 50% methyl riconyl ( Rickettsia) or 33% Neisseria gossypium net wettable powder 200g, 50L per 667m2 solution. Can also be used 20% rice foot green (methyl zinc arsenate) or 10% Ding Ning (methyl magnesium arsenate) wettable powder 100g water 100L spray, or add water 400-500L splash, or mixed fine soil 25kg spread . It can also use 5% Tianan (methyl iron arsenate) water 200g water 100L spray or water pouring 400L, or 500g mixed soil 20kg spread, pay attention to the amount of medication and use in the booties, to prevent the occurrence of phytotoxicity. When the disease is severe, 20% bacterin can be used as a synergist for 125-150 mL per 667m2 of medication or 75% carbendazim wettable powder 75g can be mixed with different rice bran. Can also be used 10% chloramine emulsion 250ml per 667m2 or 25% saccharin wettable powder 50-70g per 667m2 medication, 75L water spray, the effect of a long effect. 77% Hufeng (copper hydroxide) wettable powder 700 times liquid or Lubang 98 rice special type 600 times liquid or 25% triadimefon wettable powder 100g can also be used. 75L of water is protected at the beginning of booting stage and the end of booting stage. For one time, the disease rate, the diseased plant rate, and the severity of the functional leaf sheath lesions were all significant and effective in protecting the functional leaves. Also can use 25% of the enemy demulsification oil 2000 times in rice at the booting time of a drug can effectively control rice sheath blight, leaf sheath spoilage disease, rice smut and rice smut. Can cure rice in a variety of diseases in the late stage. In addition, it is advisable to use more rare earth pure nutrients.

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