Summary: The GM rice is non-authentic

We often hear that GM crops can bring about a new wave of green revolutions and solve the food problems of today's world. However, as of now, there is no case that GM crops can be used to fulfill this promise. On the contrary, 91% of the total global acreage of genetically modified crops is currently a product of a multinational corporation, Monsanto. This figure shows that the development of genetically modified crops is only conducive to multinational companies monopolizing food production and poses a threat to global food security. "Golden Rice" Can't Beat Hunger Golden rice converts beta-carotene to rice and makes rice rich in vitamin A. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, more than 1 million children die each year from vitamin A deficiency, and more than 500,000 children are blinded due to the lack of long-term vitamin A. Biotechnology companies and genetically modified scientists say that genetically modified crops such as golden rice can increase the nutritional content of food and grow vitamin-rich plants to solve global hunger and malnutrition. But a recent BBC news tells us that golden rice may be just a myth. News reports said that in fact beta-carotene is already present in traditional rice, but it is only apparent that there is no transgenic rice in the expression. A scientist from Syngenta said: “In fact, all the genes are present in the existing rice varieties. We can completely obtain rice with vitamin A content through non-genetically modified methods." People with poor nutrition are unable to absorb beta-carotene in genetically modified rice. To absorb beta-carotene, you need to eat more vegetables and improve their dietary structure. Moreover, we can predict that even if gold rice is produced, it is impossible for a bio-company to give it to the poor farmers free of charge. Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet, the world's most famous medical magazine, commented: “Seeking the same technology food to solve the world's hunger may be the most ridiculous prank in this new century's commercial hype.” Even Steve Smith, a scientist from the bioindustry company They all said that if someone tells you that genetically modified foods can feed this planet, you should tell him that this is not the same thing. The problem of hunger is not related to production, but it requires the determination of global political and financial reforms. GM is a beautiful misunderstanding of the savior problem of hunger. The problem of hunger stems from food insufficiency, and it is a beautiful misunderstanding that GM can increase yield to solve problems. Because the problem of hunger is not due to food shortages, but genetic modification can only Make the hunger problem worse: Misunderstanding: Food insufficiency leads to hunger Truth: There are 800 million people in the world who are hungry for a long time, and two thirds of them live in developing countries in Asia and the Pacific, such as India, Bangladesh and China. In the sub-Saharan region (FAO, 1999), however, quite a few data points out that the real cause of hunger is not food insufficiency, but poverty and uneven distribution of resources. In 2002, global food production was sufficient. It provides 2,800 calories per person per day (Hunger Report, 2003), but the problem of hunger persists, showing that the problem is not production but distribution. The United Nations Development Program (1998) also pointed out that the world’s richest two adults, Nearly half of the meat and fish were consumed, while the poorest two adults only consumed 3%. Hunger is not caused by insufficient food production but by uneven distribution of resources, whether it be scholars engaged in famine research, such as the 1998 Nobel Prize winner in economics, the Indian scholar Amartya Sen, or Oxfam Hong Kong. Action groups such as Action Aid, which have long been concerned about famine and organized emergency rescue work, all pointed out in unison that the causes of modern famine are often caused by poverty and uneven distribution, and have nothing to do with the lack of food. There is little food production, and the people naturally have to go hungry Truth: Many people who have been hungry for a long time live in food-producing countries. India is one of the most hunger-stricken countries in the world, and among the 900 million people, more than 200 million people are chronically hungry ( (FAO, 1999) At the same time, India’s agricultural exports accounted for 30% of GNP and the number of developing countries was among the top in developing countries. In 1999, India’s wheat and rice reserves reached 40,400 tons. The standard exceeds 20 million tons, however, food is still hoarding, and the poor are still hungry (TheHinduBusinessLine, 2000). In the case of ample food production, Hunger still does not disappear. In 1998, a delegation of more than 20 African countries, including Ethiopia, Sudan, and Rwanda issued a statement expressing their opposition to GM crops and referring to this technology for their economy. And poverty is not helpful.. Misunderstanding: The population is too large for the earth to accommodate! The truth: In a report, FAO (2000) pointed out that food production can meet the needs of the global population. Over the past three decades, The population has increased by more than 70%, but food production has grown faster, and per capita food has increased by nearly 20%. In developing countries, the same is true. Can GM rice help farmers? At this stage we have difficulty assessing the possibility that GM rice may affect farmers. The effect is because it has not yet been planted, but we can refer to the experience of the most common transgenic crop, GM soybeans. Monsanto claims that the yield of genetically modified soybeans is higher than that of traditional soybeans. However, many U.S. universities have conducted GM soybean tests and found that production has dropped by 4%. A scientific analysis published in 2001 clearly showed that the yield of genetically modified soybeans was very low. These studies indicate that "5% reduction in yield is associated with genes or insertion programs, and that another 5% reduction in yield is associated with genetic differences in breeding." They concluded that "the reduction in yield is related to herbicide-tolerant genes or insertion programs." Monsanto also promoted genetically modified soybeans to reduce the use of pesticides. A 2003 U.S. report comprehensively evaluated the impact of its commercial production of genetically modified crops in 1996 on the use of pesticides for eight years. The report quoted statistics from the United States Department of Agriculture on the area under cultivation of genetically modified varieties from 1996 to 2003, and the corresponding pesticide use data for maize, soybean and cotton crops. The report pointed out that in the past eight years, the US transgenic herbicide-tolerant crops have increased the use of pesticides by approximately 70 million pounds. Finally, all GM crops on the market are protected by patents. Since the commercialization of GM crops, farmers have painfully discovered that they have one more yoke: Patent licensing fees. When farmers buy transgenic insect-resistant cotton seeds, they must sign an agreement with the seed production company. For example, in accordance with the agreement of the “Shumian” company for farmers, farmers planting genetically modified insect-resistant cotton must not leave seed and need to purchase seed from the company each year. The experience of GM crops has proven that it does not benefit farmers. It seems to make biotechnology companies, seed companies, and patent scientists more profitable. Moreover, when the ecological environment is damaged by genetically modified crops, or when our health is threatened, the consequences will only be borne by farmers and consumers. The Threat of Genetically Modified Rice to Rice Germplasm Resources China is one of the origins of cultivated rice, a concentrated variety of rice varieties, and wild rice resources and local breed resources are all quite abundant. Once genetic pollution occurs, the treasure house of China's natural rice resources will be It will be seriously damaged. Serious genetic contamination has occurred in Mexico, Mexico is the origin of corn and its genetic diversity center. In 2001, scientists discovered that Mexico's wild corn was contaminated by imported GM corn, shocking the world. The most surprising thing is that Mexican corn turned out to be genetically contaminated when Mexico banned the cultivation of genetically modified corn. If China grows genetically modified rice, the rich rice resources will inevitably be contaminated by the genes. In China, many wild rice populations are located in areas close to cultivated rice and can be infiltrated with genes of common cultivated rice to varying degrees. An experiment to test the gene flow of cultivated rice to wild rice showed that the maximum gene flow frequency in natural habitats was estimated to be 3%. Therefore, once GM rice is released into the environment, it is highly probable that pollen will spread to transfer foreign genes to wild rice, causing genetic contamination. In addition, genetic contamination may occur at each joint of the entire rice production and distribution chain. For example: In the process of seed cultivation, genetically modified seeds are frequently mixed with other conventional varieties due to carelessness. Pollution. Many farmers do not have their own production tools. Harvesters, for example, belong collectively. Usually, a harvester harvests several farms a day. It is obvious that pollution has just been caused by the harvesting of genetically modified rice to harvest traditional rice. For thousands of years, human beings have used genetic diversity to cultivate new varieties of crops to fight new insect pests, new diseases, and adapt to changing climate and environmental conditions. Scientists pointed out that genetic diversity is "important to people's imagination because it prevents human-induced famine." Threats to the Environment from Genetically Modified Rice Produce New, More Serious Viruses The transgenic rice currently being studied is targeted at at least four rice viruses, and these antiviral foreign genes are likely to be transferred to weedy rice. These antiviral genes are inherently toxic and, if combined with invading viruses, may result in more toxic viruses. And the interaction between transgenic crops and invasive viruses will increase pathogen resistance. (Snow et al. 2004; Power 2002) The cause of super pests “History has shown that farms growing a large number of species are susceptible to new, matched pathogen strains or pests.” (Alteiri, 2000, p. 2) Insect GM crops make it extremely easy for insects and bacteria and other organisms to develop resistance. This is because the transgenic plants have insect-resistant toxins throughout the growing season, and pests will take up toxins for a long period of time, resulting in resistance to toxins and causing super pests. Once super pests are created, the ecological environment and food production will be seriously negatively affected. After the introduction of a new breed fails, who will bear this responsibility? Unfortunately, no one is responsible. Only the farmers and nature are satisfied with the consequences. Harmful secretions of pollen, rice, rice straw, or roots that harm non-target organisms may also affect insects, birds, wildlife, and root microorganisms in the paddy ecosystem, induce mutations, or disrupt ecological balance. Studies have shown that the roots of transgenic insect-resistant crops can secrete toxins into the soil (Saxena, D et al 2002), thereby reducing plant decomposition rates and soil microbial diversity and adversely affecting soil fertility and composition. In addition, non-target species such as butterflies, moths, and ladybugs are also produced. Genetic pollution is caused and the genetic diversity is harmed Once the GM rice is released into the environment, especially large-scale planting will lead to the alienation of traditional rice and the escape of exogenous genes from genetically modified rice, resulting in genetic contamination. Transgenic rice may transmit genes through cultivated rice, weedy rice, and wild rice through genetic flow, endangering the genetic integrity, genetic diversity, and viability of these cultivars or wild species and contaminating existing natural rice. What is genetically modified rice? Transgenics is the application of emerging biotechnologies to transfer some genes that were not originally available in rice to rice. This kind of rice is called “genetically modified rice”. Transgenic rice is different from hybrid rice. Breeding techniques through hybridization techniques can only be carried out between close relatives. Modern hybrid rice is a hybrid variety between cultivated rice or between cultivated rice and wild rice, and breeding and selection of excellent strains. Even artificial hybridization techniques do not break the laws of nature's inheritance. Just as horses and donkeys can mate, horses and fish cannot mate. However, through transgenic technology, scientists can transplant a gene from one organism to another, allowing the recipient organism to develop some special traits. For example: Scientists transplanted Arctic fish genes into tomatoes to make them resistant to cold temperatures. Scientists transplanted human biogenic hormone genes into catfish to make them grow faster and bigger. Scientists transplanted soil microbe poison protein genes to scientists. On rice, it makes rice resistant to insects. Therefore, genetically modified organisms are life created in the laboratory. They have never appeared on the earth in the past hundreds of thousands of years and will not be able to emerge through natural evolution in the future. China is studying some genetically modified rice? There are many researches on GM rice, which mainly focus on four areas, namely herbicide resistance, pest resistance, stress resistance and quality improvement. According to a research report and foreign media reports, there are GM rice varieties that may be commercially grown in China before 2005: Anti-aphids (Bt genes) Resistant to bacterial blight (Xa21 genes) Glyphosate-resistant herbicides resistant to glufosinate Herbicides Currently, transgenic rice is only field tested, and there is no commercial planting of transgenic rice in the world. Closest to commercial planting is the Roundup herbicide developed by Monsanto and Bayer's GM-tolerant GM rice. In fact, last year, the United States had approved the commercialization of Bayer's GM-tolerant GM rice, but farmers in the United States have not yet started planting. Therefore, if China approves the planting of GM rice in 2005, it may become the first country in the world to plant GM rice.

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