High-yield cultivation techniques of winter rapeseed
First, choose good breeds. Replacement of degraded and low-yield old varieties, introduction and selection of improved varieties is a key measure to increase the yield, and it should be selected based on the local climatic conditions, variety growth period and other conditions. Such as early maturing varieties (fertility period of about 120 days) can choose to use local rape varieties, medium and late maturing varieties (reproductive period 170-200 days) can choose Zhongyou 821, Zhongshuang, Rongyou, Youyan and other good varieties. Second, fine soil preparation. After the middle and late rice are harvested, the ploughs will be used to grind the soil, and the raft will be opened for ditching. The raft shall be 1.5 meters wide and 12-17 centimeters high. The surface shall be finely chopped and smooth, and the field ditch and surrounding drains shall be opened. Third, timely sowing, nurturing strong seedlings. The medium- and late-maturing varieties were sown from late September to mid-October; the early-maturing varieties were suitable for planting from mid-October to late October. If the late rice harvest is not timely, it must be sown and cultivated 30 days before harvest. Nursery land should choose fertile land, sunny land, convenient drainage and irrigation of sandy soil or vegetable garden. Fine soil preparation, adequate basal fertilization, per 667 square meters of cooked pig cow dung 1000 kg -1250 kg, 30 kg -40 kg of phosphate fertilizer. Separately quantitative, uniform sowing, sowing 0.5 kg -0.7 kg per 667 square meters, cover soil 1 cm after sowing. During the period of 2 leaves, the seedlings will remain strong, and the leaves will be set at 4 leaves (seeding seedlings and Honda at 1:5). After dying, every 667 square meters of urea 2 kg -3 kg or human excreta 250 kg -300 kg of water applied. The timely detection and prevention of pests and diseases to protect strong seedlings. Fourth, timely transplanting, rational close planting. The seedlings reach the age of 30-35 days and they are transplanted in time with a spacing of 40 cm and a spacing of 20-27 cm. The medium- and late-maturing varieties are planted with 8,000-10,000 plants per 667 square meters, and the early-maturing varieties are planted with 12,000-1.4 million plants per 667 square meters. Early maturing species can also be used to carry out acupuncture point seeding. The distance between the points is 27 cm and 33 cm. Seeds are sown at 5-8 seeds per hole, and 1 seedling is left afterwards. Seedlings should be checked and replaced immediately after transplanting. Fifth, scientific fertilization. 1 Shi basal fertilizer. The farmyard manure and phosphate fertilizers are required to be sowed before sowing or transplanting, and 1,000 kg of high-quality farmyard fertilizer is applied per 667 square meters, and phosphate fertilizer is 20 kg to 25 kg. 2 early Miao Miao. The live rapeseed grows 3 true leaves to be able to combine seedlings and seedlings to attack Miaofei, applying urea 4 kg-5 kg â€‹â€‹per 667 m2, potassium chloride 2 kg-3 kg. When the nursery was transplanted, 667 square meters of green manure was applied to 1,000 kilograms of manure water or 667 square meters of urea and 8 kilograms to 10 kilograms of urea. 3 timely application of fertilizer. Rape buds when twitching every 667 square meters of urea 5 kg -7 kg, potassium chloride 3 kg -4 kg, or every 667 square meters of nitrogen and phosphorus potassium compound fertilizer 7 kg -8 kg. 4 top dressing. In the seedling stage and flowering stage, 0.2% borax or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was used for foliar spraying to increase seed setting rate. Sixth, weeding and weeding. The live seedlings were sowed and irrigated, and transplanted and transplanted. The combination of fertilization and cultivator weeding was carried out 20-30 days after transplanting. Seven, scientific irrigation. Rape growth is both afraid of drought and taboo. In terms of water management, drought irrigation and flooding can be done to keep the sulcus and the surrounding sulcus smooth so as to facilitate drainage and irrigation. In the period of flowering and flowering, the amount of water required is large and the supply of water should be guaranteed. Seedling stage and flowering and scarring period should pay attention to prevent field waterlogging. Eight, timely prevention and control of pests and diseases. The main pests of rapeseed include ground tigers, aphids, leafhoppers, and diamondback moths, which can be controlled by dichlorvos, dimethoate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The main diseases are Sclerotinia, downy mildew, etc. It can be controlled by thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim, and morbidities such as manganese zinc. Nine, timely harvest. Around 30 days after the flowering stage of rapeseed, about 2/3 of the pods are yellow. When the seeds in the pods change from green to yellow and red, they can be harvested. The harvesting stalls are threshed in 1 day and they are timely. Drying, timely processing.