The storage and preservation technology of edible fungi

1. The storage characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus 1.1 The water content of Pleurotus ostreatus is very high, and the loss of water leads to a decrease in storability. At the same time, they have a strong metabolism and they should be stored at a low temperature of 5°C. When the temperature is too low, they are susceptible to cold damage. The respiration intensity of Pleurotus eryngii, which is harvested at different growth stages, is different, and the mushroom is susceptible to senescence after the parachute is opened. It is not resistant to storage and must be harvested before the opening of the umbrella and must be cooled in time. The effect of the modified atmosphere on the storage effect is obvious, and the small packaging method is often used. Another storage characteristic of Pleurotus eryngii is that browning is easy, and the effect of reducing mechanical injury and controlled atmosphere storage on browning reduction is significant. 1.2 The general standard for harvesting and pre-processing is: The mushroom grows to about 4cm in length, and it is harvested when it has not been opened. Harvest tools must be disinfected before harvesting. The harvester is best to cut the mushroom body with a knife, directly in the plastic or bamboo basket; do not put too much on each basket, the bottom of the basket should be lined with plastic film. From the time of picking and exporting to and from the market, it must be handled with care. Reduce mechanical injuries. Use the method of picking edges to reduce the movement between different containers. The residual medium was removed, and no pests, mildew, and normal growth mushrooms were used for storage. The timely cooling of the mushroom after harvest has a great influence on the preservation effect, and generally can be pre-cooled in the pre-cooling room. The basket can be placed flat on the floor of the library without stacking it, without covering it. If the harvest is large, vacuum precooling can be used where conditions permit; the effect is better. Mushroom cooling treatment in a short time, little effect on the water loss of mushroom body. However, the refrigeration capacity of the library is required to allow mushrooms to drop to 6°C in a short time. 1.3 Storage conditions Suitable storage temperature of Pleurotus eryngii is about 5°C and relative humidity is 80%-90%. 1.4 Storage methods and management In a cold store that can guarantee temperature and humidity, mushrooms can be stored directly in the basket. After pre-cooling the mushroom according to the above method, it is not necessary to trim again, and the basket can be palletized. A plastic film with a thickness of 0.06 mm is covered on the surface of the crucible to reduce the loss of moisture. Under these conditions, the mushrooms can be kept fresh for a few days. This method can buffer sales pressure during mass harvesting. The mushroom can be preserved for more than 10 days by using the atmosphere-adjusting storage method. The mushroom is put in a polyethylene bag of 0.03 mm thick, about 0.5 kg per bag is put, and the bag mouth is sealed. If the bag is flushed with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, the effect is not good. When the conditions permit, the gas composition in the bag can be monitored, and the gas composition can be controlled in the range of 2% to 5% of O2 concentration, 10% to 15% of CO2 concentration, and ventilation if necessary. 2. Pleurotus ostreatus 2.1 Storage characteristics Pleurotus ostreatus has been cultivated in many countries and has many varieties. Different varieties have differences in the storage properties. In mushroom varieties, Pleurotus ostreatus is not resistant to storage. After harvesting at room temperature, white hairs will soon appear on the stipe, the canopy will crack, curl, and eventually brownish and rot. In addition, Pleurotus ostreatus has high oxidase activity after picking and is easily browned. 2.2 Harvesting and pretreatment The standards for harvesting are as follows: The caps are flattened and there is not much radioactive spores. Harvesting can be used to cut knife, pay attention to maintaining the integrity of the mushroom body, reduce the mechanical injury, but also pay attention not to affect the growth of the lower oyster mushroom. 2.3 Storage conditions Pleurotus ostreatus suitable storage temperature 0 °C, relative humidity of 80% -90%. 2.4 Storage methods and management Pleurotus ostreatus is mostly stored under refrigeration, and the Pleurotus ostreatus is placed in a 0.03 mm thick polyethylene bag. Each bag is placed around 0.5 kg and the bag mouth is sealed. If the storage time does not exceed 1 week, do not make small packages. But pay attention to insulation. 3. Mushrooms 3.1 Storage characteristics Shiitake mushroom is a more resistant species in edible fungi because it can tolerate low temperature and high carbon dioxide environment during storage without causing obvious harm. Therefore, it can be used for storage of mushrooms. . 3.2 Harvesting and pre-treatment of shiitake Mushrooms should be harvested in batches. The criteria for proper harvesting are as follows: the cap is not fully opened, the edges of the caps are slightly reeled, and the pleats are fully straightened. Mushroom harvesting time should be carried out in the sunny morning when the temperature is low. Harvesting can be cut one by one with a small knife, placed in a basket and other containers, the bottom of the container layer of plastic film, picking process should pay attention to maintaining the integrity of mushrooms, to avoid mechanical injury. After harvesting, timely selection should be made to remove the mushrooms that are not suitable for storage. 3.3 Storage conditions Suitable storage temperature for mushrooms is 0°C, relative humidity is 80%-90%, gas conditions are 2%-5% for O2, and 10%-15% for CO2. 3.4 Storage methods and management Before the shiitake mushroom is harvested and packaged, the temperature must be lowered first. Mushrooms are mostly stored in small packages with a film thickness of 0.03 mm, 1 kg per bag, sealed in bags, spontaneous air-conditioning, and no nitrogen treatment. This method can generally preserve the mushrooms for 2-3 weeks with better quality. 4. Disease prevention Common diseases of Pleurotus eryngii are brown rot, brown spot and rust spot disease. Pleurotus ostreatus is often infected by Penicillium and Botrytis. In addition, insect pests often occur in the production of edible fungi. The control of the occurrence of pests and diseases of edible fungi mainly starts from two aspects: First, in the course of mining, transportation, storage, etc., through appropriate operations, the resistance of the mushroom body is improved; second, the antiseptic treatment is performed through chemical methods. According to some storage characteristics common to edible fungi, the following work should be done to improve the anti-corruption ability of edible fungi; related tools used for harvesting and storage should be disinfected; timely harvesting is very important, and the late harvested mushroom body It is very easy to rot. Before storage, it is necessary to choose to remove the infected individuals. From the time of picking up and selling, we must pay attention to reduce the mechanical injury; pay attention to control the storage conditions. In terms of chemical preservation, commonly used preservatives include: 20 mg/kg potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium bisulfite, 10 mg/kg of benzoate, thiophanate and others. Because there is no protective tissue on the surface of edible fungi, preservatives are generally not recommended.

The garden pansy is a type of large-flowered hybrid plant cultivated as a garden flower. It is derived by hybridization from several species in the section Melanium ("the pansies") of the genusViola, particularly Viola tricolor, a wildflower of Europe and western Asia known as heartsease. Some of these hybrids are referred to as Viola wittrockiana Gams ex Nauenb. & Buttler. For simplicity, the older name Viola tricolor var. hortensis is often used.

The garden pansy flower is 5 to 8 centimetres (2 to 3 in) in diameter and has two slightly overlapping upper petals, two side petals, and a single bottom petal with a slight beard emanating from the flower's center. These petals are usually white or yellow, purplish, or blue. The plant may grow to 23 cm (9 in) in height, and prefers sun to varying degrees and well-draining soils.

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