Eggplant cultivation techniques

1. Nursery
A. Determination of nursery sites and sowing date: Shanxi Province Sunlight Greenhouse Eggplants usually planted in mid-October. In order to mention the city in the morning, eggplants need to grow large seedlings with a longer seedling age, usually 90-100 days.
B. Immersion seed germination: First, put the seeds in warm water at 55°C. The amount of water used is 5-6 times the amount of seeds, stirring constantly, and keeping the water temperature at 55°C for 10-15 minutes, then soaking in the naturally falling water temperature 8- 12 hours. Eggplant seed coat is thick, water absorption is difficult, if the seed is not fully fermented more difficult to germinate, first use 0.2-0.5% lye cleaning, and repeated washing with water until the seed coat is clean and no mucus when soaking. Can also be soaked in 1% potassium permanganate solution for 30 minutes before soaking. During the soaking process, change the water every 5-8 hours. When the seeds are fully absorbed, they are rinsed with clean water and then removed. Wrap them in layers of damp cloth or sack cloth. Drain the water and place it in a container. Put it in a warm place. Germination. The optimum temperature for eggplant germination is 25-35°C. Due to uneven seed temperature and oxygen in the germination bag, the seeds will germinate unevenly. Therefore, it is best to use variable temperature germination. The optimum temperature is 30°C for 8 hours a day. 20 °C accounted for 16 hours, after 5-6 days, 75% of the seeds were white and budding was neat and consistent. The seed bag is often turned during germination to facilitate gas exchange of the seed coat.
C. Seeding: The eggplant grows at a higher temperature. The greenhouse is best sown with a sowing box. This method can be easily moved to adjust the temperature and light. Spread a layer of nutrient soil with a thickness of 3cm in the seeding box; pour the first time the water, after the water seepage, sprinkle a layer of fine soil, sow or sow seeds, cover 1cm thick fine soil after sowing, Cover the plastic film again and remove the seed when it is unearthed.
D. Seedling management: After sowing, room temperature requires 25-30°C, uniform illumination, and emergence after 5-6 days. After 80% of the shoots have emerged, the room temperature is reduced to 20-25°C during the day and 20°C during the night. When the temperature exceeds 28°C, the amount of ventilation should not be excessive. When the room temperature drops to about 20°C, stop the air release. When the cotyledons have been unfolded, the first true leaf tip can increase the room temperature during the day by 25-27°C, nighttime at 16-18°C, and the ground temperature at 18-20°C, promoting the smooth growth of the true leaves until transplantation. Under the conditions of sufficient soil moisture, the eggplant grows well. When water is insufficient, the flower buds are differentiated late, the result period is delayed, and the yield in the early stage is reduced. Before sowing and transplanting, eggplant must be filled with bottom water. Afterwards, according to the growth of seedlings, water can be added to meet the needs of its growth. The eggplant seedlings require strict lighting conditions, and adequate light illumination not only facilitates flower bud differentiation, but also enables seedling growth and development to proceed smoothly. When the illumination is insufficient, the flower buds are differentiated lately, and the seedlings are so long and have abnormal flowers that directly affect the formation of yield. In order to improve lighting conditions, the nursery box can be tilted south for light. Increase the area of ​​nutritional paper bags used for transplantation, and the discharge density is reasonable, which also has the effect of improving lighting conditions.
E. Transplantation: Eggplant roots have poor ability to regenerate, and new roots are difficult to produce. Usually, only 2-3 true leaves of seedlings can be transplanted into the nutrient paper bag at one time when flower bud differentiation has not yet begun. The use of nutritional paper bag nursery is a good method to protect eggplant roots, but pay attention to add more nitrogen fertilizer when preparing nutritious soil. 1-2 days before transplanting, fill the water in the nutrient paper bag to the bottom of the paper bag. During transplanting, the seedlings were shaken out of the already loose soil in the sowing box, and they were placed in a nutrient paper bag and not bent. When the eggplant is planted, the criteria for strong seedlings are: seedling plant height 18-20 cm, 6-7 leaves, and more than 70% of buds in the gate of eggplant. Stem is thick, purple, and the roots are well developed.
2. Colonization
A. 5000 kg of Mushi Base Fertilizer before planting. After deep-turning the lofty level, a high ridge with a width of 60-65 cm and a height of 15 cm will be made. Then, two shallow ditches will be drilled on the ridge and the bottom water will be poured. After the water seeps down, the plants are planted at a spacing of 30-40 cm, and then the soil ditch is taken from the middle of two shallow ditch on the high ridge. The depth of colonization is appropriate to shoot flat with seedlings. 3000-4000 acres of seedlings.
B. Planting time should be selected after the warm-up period of the cold current. According to the rule of the northern climate conditions, the selection of such planting period can ensure that the fine weather is maintained within 3-5 days after the seedlings are planted, which will help to slow down the seedlings. The day of colonization should be performed at a high temperature of 10-14 hours.
3. Management
A. The biggest difficulty in planting eggplant is that the ground temperature is insufficient, so it is necessary to strengthen the cold insulation during the cold season after planting. After 7-10 days of planting, keep the room temperature above 30°C to increase the ground temperature, supplement the night temperature, and ease the seedlings as soon as possible. And try to keep the ground temperature stable at 16-18 °C. After the sapling period, the plants begin to grow normally. Every day, they must pay attention to the light, such as the lack of light, which can easily cause the fall of flowers. After the seedlings are released, they must be careful to regulate the balance between vegetative growth and reproductive growth. The room temperature should be reduced to 25-30°C during the day and 15-17°C during the night. This will not only result in eggplant flowering, but also Can be lush foliage. When the room temperature exceeds 25°C, a proper amount of air is released to eliminate excessive humidity in the room, increase the carbon dioxide content, increase the light intensity, and reduce the number of falling flowers. Even if it is overcast, we must adhere to the right amount of air, but we must pay special attention to the amount of air release and the time of air release.
B. Eggplant colonization After pouring the larvae, the water is no longer watered until the eggplant grows to 3 cm. The first time the amount of fertilizer can be larger, Mushi ammonium sulfate 10-20 kg or 1,000 kg of manure. When the eggplant starts to enlarge, it is given a second fertilizer, and after 10-15 days, the fertilizer and water are poured. The result is that there is no shortage of water and fertilizer in the middle and later stages.
C. eggplant is a hi light crop, but the natural lighting of the solar greenhouse in winter and spring is difficult to meet the needs, resulting in plant leggy, short stigma flower, resulting in fruit deformity. Therefore, in addition to daily cleaning greenhouse roof, but also hanging reflective screen to reduce the greenhouse rear light gap, increase light intensity.
D. The eggplant is painted with 25-30ppm 2,4-D for 2-3 days prior to flowering. The stems are sprayed or sprayed. Each flower is treated only once and must not be repeated. Do not spill the liquid onto the leaves.
E. Timely pruning, improvement of ventilation and light transmission conditions, after the expansion of the door and eggplant, the lower side of the door eggplant sprout budding and the old leaves of the lower part of the second fruit (tomato) under the axillary buds should be erased.
F. Increase the amount of fertilizer and water during the peak period of the results. Usually, the water is poured 1 to 7 days, alternating between chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer. At the same time increase ventilation, meet the photosynthesis needs, and promote fruit ripening.
4. Harvest eggplant full expansion, fruit purple, shiny early harvest, in order to increase the previous production, increase output value. When harvesting, it is best to cut from the stalk to reduce bruising.

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